September 3, 2008 Stereotypes: Simplified generalizations that assume homogeneity among a group Develop over specific periods of time, systematic, repeated in media Descriptive: physical looks/characteristics; outwardly visible to the eye Evaluative: qualities attributed to that person; not visible Generalizations; not based on reality Affects both those being stereotypes and the larger society Can be positive or negative; indicate a preferred power relationship where discrimination is normal Differences between stereotypes in our head and in mass media -Exists in individual mind (mental constructions) and public commodity (social constructions) -Antidote to stereotype is knowledge -Media uses symbols, myths, and resources to form ideas and values September 8, 2008 Cultural Studies: analyzes society as hierarchy of social relationships Draws attention to how everyday practices transmit ideologies that oppress certain groups and privilege others Ideologies are systematic concepts -Dominant ideologies of US: capitalism, heterosexuality, patriarchy, Judeo-Christian religious framework, Eurocentric ideals of beauty -Make inequalities and subordination appear justified and natural so general public assumes these inequalities are normal and common sense Hegemony: concept explaining how a diverse culture can be ruled by one group of class -Everyday practices and shared beliefs provide foundation for complex systems of domination -All societies are comprised of groups with different political ideologies Looks critically at pop culture and media studies, and analyzes ideologies that blatantly or subtly promote stereotypes Looks at how voices of historically marginalized people are omitted or diminished in media and the political impact of this on larger society -95% of Fortune 500 companies are owned by males; fewer than 20% of employees at Top 200 dailies are minorities Commercial media: goal is to make money by delivering audiences to vendors, not to educate or entertain -Promotes consumer culture where problems are solved by buying products; shapes the kind of media produced -Songs must fit into frames of commercial ads to satisfy commercial frameworks sitcoms must be written with cliffhangers for commercial breaks to fit in -In other countries, TV programs are written not to be interrupted by commercials and have a higher percentage devoted to in-depth investigative news coverage, high quality theatre, etc -US TV and radio are dominated by formats and conventions that are good vehicles for advertising and can easily be broken up for commercials; cheaper to produce than full length movies and educational documentaries Telecom Deregulation: media companies owned by multi-billion dollar transnational companies with little or no interest in local audience Less time devoted to in-depth reporting and more devoted to weather, style, sports, and ?light? news that leaves viewers uninformed about complexities of serious social and political issues Emphasis on entertainment instead of news and educational programming Fewer journalists and talk show hosts willing to ask tough questions and hold corporations and government accountable for their actions Deregulation: TV stations legally allowed to produce their own programming -To maximize profits, they now do mainly in-house productions, relying on the same group of people Cheaper to use stereotypical characters and scripts since material already exists and can be reworked -Costs more to produce new content, less financial risk involved because formulaic programming has past success, stock characters used repeatedly -Common technique for coping with risk, economically profitable and ideologically comfortable for those who hold power in media industry Global reach: globalization means many US transnational media giants are buying out or forcing local media companies in other countries out of business Result is less diversity of programming worldwide US stereotypes are exported to other countries Stuart Hall: encoding and decoding in media Not al texts are decoded in the same way by all audiences Interpretations differ depending on gender, race, class, political perspective, and sexual orientation Most viewers receive dominant or preferred message while a minority decode message in an alternate way Mainstream media representatives tend to support status quo power relations September 10, 2008 Why stereotypes and formulas are profitable: innovation is more expensive and might result in loss of views and less ad revenue Blatant stereotypes not tolerated (of racial minorities) Consciousness has risen and legal action has been taken by minorities Old stereotypes are reworked in today?s media -Mexican bandito ( Narco trafficker -Savage African ( Black criminal -Dragonlady ( Asian sex kitten Typecasting still common Casting agents censor themselves by producing material that fits expectations of their corporate higher-ups -Harder to do now because there are fewer people making decisions Most poor people in movies and TV black and Latino but in reality, most are white Most criminals in movies and TV are minorities and most crime stories focus on minorities In journalism, reporters focus on things that will be approved by editors based on what has been published in the past Newspapers allocate decisions based on assessments made by executives on what is important Profitability is major criteria in determining what is newsworthy Qualities sought for in newspapers and magazine editors: business skills, MBAs hired over those with journalism and literature degrees Ms. Magazine wanted to publish stories on social and political issues affecting women, advertisements of other products besides food and beauty, and advertisements that showed racially diverse women -Reliance on ads made this difficult -Women make 85% of buying decisions and they research products more extensively before buying than men -Majority of ads and test in women-oriented magazines are focused on beauty, food, clothing, shoes, jewelry, and cooking, which reinforces stereotype that women have no mind for business or politics and only care about appearance Power dynamics: media messages about women and minorities predominantly position them as lacking or having less agency Women regularly portrayed in submissive or frivolous poses, making it harder to take them seriously ?Ways of Seeing? ? John Berger In classical art, there is a long history of depicting women as having less agency Intended audience is assumed to be male and the imagine of women is designed to flatter him ?Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes? Research studies show that people live up to their stereotypical expectations September 15, 2008 Hegemony: process by which those in power secure consensual submission of those not in power Not secured by physical force but by values, attitudes, and behaviors Marginalized groups are those who historically and presently have less access to power, privilege, and resources than dominant group -Ex: women and racial minorities -Doesn?t mean that all white males have power and money and that all women and minorities have less power and money Owners and managers of media industry can produce content and ideas favorable to themselves Mutually reinforcing process repeated in various different mediums Because of deregulation, children can see a given cartoon character on TV, the big screen and also in toys, books, retail, etc (reinforces message) Images in ads, TV, videogames, etc reflect a worldview and a distribution of power that seems normal and acceptable to image-maker -Most ads show beauty defined in very narrow terms (anglocentric standards of beauty) Hegemony llows us to see how our attitudes and choices are influences by the larger social content in which we live and requires continual renewal in order to continue Norms aren?t fixed and can change over time
Want to see the other 4 page(s) in Stereotypes?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!