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What best describes thefundamental concept of superposition?
A _____________ is a well-tested and widelyaccepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
__________ rocks always originate at thesurface of the Earth.
In correct order from the center outward,Earth's layers include:
inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
Which of the following statements is notcorrect?
A. Metamorphic rocks form from a magma
B. Sedimentary rocks may weather to form other sedimentary rocks.
C. Magmas crystallize to form igneous rocks.
The composition of the mantle of Earth isthought to be _____.
The ________ is the thinnest layer of Earth.
The relatively stable interior portion of acontinent is known as a _____.
Active mountain belts are most likely to be found_____.
I see crossbedding forming in the dunes of themodern world's deserts. I find crossbedding in the rocks of Zion National Parkand I decide that those rocks formed in a large dune field. I have used thePrinciple of _______________ to make that decision.
Oceanic crust is __________ continental crust.
A.less dense than
B. Denser than
C. about the same density as
D. of more variable density than
Water does not classify as a mineral because it_____.
Which of the following would not be a crystal?
A.broken chunk of quartz
B. six-sided ruby
D. cube of halite
On the Mohs Scale of Hardness, the softestmineral is
Which of the following describes a mineral's tendency to split along smooth, parallel planes of atomic weakness?
Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?
A.They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color, and they have metallic lusters.
B. They are black to dark-green and contain iron and magnesium.
C. They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the element calcium and magnesium.
D. They contain magnetite and hematite and are rusty red.
Which one of the following is an abundant product of weathering?
Granite is an example of a/an ______________ igneous rock.
A magma cools for a long time beneath the Earth's surface and then flows in a volcanic eruption. A ______________ igneous rock will result.
The intrusive rock ________ has the same chemical composition and mineralogy as the extrusive rock ____________.
B. basalt, gabbro
C. andesite, diorite
D. pumice, obsidian
A rock that will float in water is
If the oceanic crust of the Earth cracks, the rocks below may _____.
A.melt due to decompression
B. shrink in volume
C. instantly explode due to exposure
D. not change in consistency
The presence of water causes _____.
A.slowing of crystallization
B. rocks to melt at lower temperatures
C. porphyritic textures
D. raising of rocks' melting temperatures
Bowen's Reaction Series indicates that amphibole and an intermediate composition plagioclase feldspar crystallize earlier from a cooling magma, while quartz and potassium feldspar crystallize later. If an igneous rock containing these four minerals is heated to a temperature at which melting begins, _____.
The incorporation of host rock into a magma is called _____.
C. magmatic differentiation
Magmas that produce stratovolcanoes are _____.
A.high in silica and viscous
B. high in silica and fluid
C. low in silica and viscous
D. low in silica and fluid
The Hawaiian Islands are a chain of _____.
B. lava domes
C. shield volcanoes
D. fissure flows
An igneous intrusion that resembles the filling in a layer cake is called a _____.
Roundness of a sediment particle __________ with distance traveled.
C. is unaffected
A sediment composed of large boulders and cobbles might be found _____.
A.a great distance from the source
B. in a sand dune
C. in an alluvial fanD. in playa lakeTerm
Glacially deposited sediments are generally _____.
A.very well sorted
B. very fine grained
C. very poorly sorted
A turbidity current deposit might be identified by
B. red color
C. cross bedding
Cross-bedding is typical of ____________ deposits.
D. deep marine
Thick sequences of ________ have been deposited by shallow seas on the continents.
An evaporating sea will deposit gypsum and _____.
B. rock salt
A deep marine environment would be indicated by _____.
A.sand and gravel
B. fine-grained mud
Playa lakes occur in _____.
B. tropical rain forests
C. high mountains
D. polar regions
A very resistant mineral common to many crustal igneous rocks is abundant in detrital sedimentary rocks. That mineral is _____.
B. plagioclase feldspar
Conglomerate is typically _____.
A.very poorly sorted
B. composed of angular fragments
C. composed of calcite
D. deposited in the deep ocean
All the following except ________ are processes of diagenesis.
C. chemical alteration
A prominently characteristic physical feature of all sedimentary rocks is/are _____.
D. graded bedding
Which of the following forms at the lowest grade of contact metamorphism?
Which of the following statements concerning slate is not true?
A.It forms from shales and mudstones.
B. It has abundant, coarse-grained mica.
C. Rock cleavage is common.
D. Sedimentary features may be visible.
Which of the following best describes the conditions of regional metamorphism?
A.Pressures are very high and the rock is deeply buried.
B. Metamorphic rocks are restricted to narrow aureoles.
C. Pressures are high, although the rock is near the surface.
D. Friction from fault movement generates the necessary heat.
___________ forms from the metamorphism of limestone.
A metamorphic rock characterized by bands of light and dark minerals is _____.
B. garnet schist
C. granitic gneiss
Which of the following lists the rocks in order of increasing grade of metamorphism?
A.schist, phyllite, slate
B. gneiss, slate, phyllite
C. slate, schist, phyllite
D. phyllite, schist, gneiss
What change is not a result of metamorphism?
A.grain size increase
B. formation of new minerals
C. rounding of crystals
D. alignment of crystals
Minerals that indicate specific temperature and pressure conditions are called _____.
___________ is considered a nonrenewable resource.
It is always necessary to have _______________ to produce an oil trap.
D. impermeable rocks
Most oil is found in __________ rocks.
Uranium deposits form primarily _____.
A.by chemical reaction with organic matter
B. by decomposition of marine organisms
C. by hydrothermal emplacement
D. as residual soils on igneous terrains
by chemical reaction with organic matter
Which of the following often produces valuable gemstones?
C. weathering of aluminum-rich rocks
D. salt domes
The large copper deposits of the American West and South America were generated by _____.
A.differential settling within cooling batholiths
B. glacially deposited placers
C. unique chemical reactions during the Precambrian
D. hydrothermal solutions invading host rock
A mineral commonly recovered in placer deposits is _____.
Transportation costs figure most prominently in the value of which of the following resources?
Which of the following is most susceptible to chemical weathering by oxidation?
__________ is the major weathering process contributing to the formation of talus slopes.
B. Frost wedging
D. Acid rain
Under what conditions is the rate of chemical weathering accelerated?
A.cold and wet
B. cold and dry
C. hot and wet
D. hot and dry
The physical breakdown of rocks by surface processes is _____.
D. mass wasting
Which of the following does not apply to fractures in rock masses?
A.They provide pathways for water to access deeper into a rock.
B. They increase the surface area exposed to weathering.
C. They contribute to a decrease in chemical weathering.
D. They help to reduce a solid rock mass into smaller pieces.
The end product of the weathering of feldspars would be _____.
D. All of the above
A granitic mass forms at depth and under great pressure. As erosion exposes it to the Earth's surface, it breaks up into thin slabs. This is called _____.
D. expansion wedging
Acid mine drainage results from the chemical weathering of _____.
In a warm, moist tropical area such as Brazil, you would expect to find soils with what characteristics?
B. deep, with a thick A horizon
C. moderately deep with an idealized soil profile
D. deep, with a thin A horizon and thick E horizon
deep, with a thick A horizon
All other factors being equal, which architectural rock type will be most susceptible to acid precipitation?
The cliffs and slopes of the Grand Canyon are a result of _____.
B. expansive soils
D. acid precipitation
Which of the following does not influence soil formation?
A.slope of the land
C. composition of the parent material
D. eruption columns
The thinnest soils will be found _____.
A.on steep slopes
B. in equatorial regions
C. on flat lands
D. in the Midwest U.S.
A nearly impermeable layer of clay that can be found in the B horizon of some soils (especially those of the desert Southwest) is called _____.
B. brick clay
Mass wasting events are most likely on _____.
A.very dry slopes
B. heavily vegetated slopes
C. very wet slopes
D. very gentle slopes
The crescent-shaped area exposed at the head of a slump is called a _____.
C. flow band
Which of the following would most likely be triggered by an earthquake?
C. rock avalanche
Which of the following statements concerning mudflows is not true?A.Mudflows may be caused by heavy rains or melting snow.
B.hilly areas, mudflows move down the canyons and stream valleys.
C. Mudflows deposit talus slopes.
D. Mudflows can move & carry very large boulders and other coarse debris.
All of the following contribute to slope steepening except _____.
A.erosion at a sea cliff
B. erosion of a stream across the bottom of a slope
C. deposition of an alluvial fan
deposition of an alluvial fan
The fastest type of mass movement is _____.
B. debris flow
D. rock avalanche
Evidence of past slumping might be _____.
A.a talus slope
B. multiple terraces
C. graded bedding
Which of the following processes is most likely in an area underlain by permafrost?
A stream cuts through an area of rock. Which of the following situations will depict the most unstable slope that is subject to rockslides?
A.a set of fractures, inclined toward the stream
B. horizontal bedding planes
C. a set of fractures inclined away from the stream cut
D. horizontal bedding planes and a set of fractures inclined away from the stream cut
Tilting telephone poles might be a clue to _____.
B. rock fall
If you tap your foot on the water-saturated sand of a beach, your foot will start to sink as the sand loses cohesion. This is called _____.
All of the following contributed to the landslide into Vaiont Reservoir except _____.
A.weak, fractured limestone
B. reduced friction between rock clasts due to rising water
C. bedding planes tilting into the slope
D. clay layers that got slippery as they became saturated
Motions involved in mass wasting events include all the following except _____.
Which material will support the steepest angle of repose?
B. dry sand
C. wet sand
D. dry boulders
The driving force behind mass wasting is _____.
B. solar radiation
D. lunar phases
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