Glossary Artifacts- any object made or modified by a human culture. Features- non-portable artifacts; they are artifacts that cannot be recovered from the settings in which they are found. Ecofacts- are nonartifactual material remains that nonethe less have cultural relevance. Sites-a place where human activity occurred and material remains were deposited. Context- the position of an archaeological find in time and space, established by measuring and assessing its associations, matrix, and provenience. Matrix- the surrounding soil/deposits. Provenience- position of the find in the dimensional space. Acquisition- process of obtaining necessary raw materials to make the object. Manufacture- altering the raw materials into an object to be used. Use- utilization of an object for its intended purpose, as well as for unintended purposes. Deposition- process by which the artifact becomes a part of the archaeological record. Ceramics Seriation- the technique in which artifacts are dated relatively to each other without any strict assigning of age. Residue analysis- petrographic analysis- used to identify the mineral components in pottery. This info is then usually used to tie the artifacts to geological source areas for both the clay used and the rock fragments used. Sherds- a broken piece of a brittle artifact. Lithics- stone tools, give information on food production activities, as well as warfare and other aspects of society. Ground stone- stone objects that are often ground down to a certain shape to be used as tools. residue analysis mano/metate vs. quern/rubbing stone- metate, used for processing grain and seeds. Macehead- made of limestone, pear-shaped, and is attributed to king scorpion. axehead hammerstone- a hard cobble used to strike lithic flakes of a lump of tool stone during the process of lithic reduction. Chipped stone- cutting instruments, commonly made of chert, flint, or obsidian. Cores- body of stone from which the tools are made. Debitage- waste left over from manufacture of chipped stone tools. Chert- a fine-grained sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. Flint- a variety of chert, glassy or waxy appearance. Obsidian- a naturally occurring glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock, produced from felsic lava. Knapping- the process of making stone tools. Residue analysis Sickle blade- a hand-held curved blade farmers use to harvest crops. Metal Most common are copper, bronze, and iron weapons, jewelry, needles Faunal remains- remains of animals. needles, awls antler used in knapping Terracotta- clay based unglazed ceramic spindle whorls, figurines Taphonomy- study of what happens to artifacts after their deposition. Archaeological pedestrian survey excavation Archaeological survey- non-invasive method of gathering archaeological date, appropriate for broad, regional research, required in many cases to determine where archaeological sites that may be excavated are located. sub-surface survey probes- radio waves sent into the ground, they reflect off of features. shovel test pits Sampling strategies and problems Ground reconnaissance- can be done on a regional or a more site-based, local level. Used to identify sites on the ground, as well as attempt to assign dates to them. Aerial reconnaissance- a sometimes easier way to perform a survey over specific portions of the landscape. Typically detects a change in vegetation patterns or depth of soil to determine where buried structures may be. Ground penetrating radar- can be used to detect anomalies in the ground. Radio waves sent into the ground and they reflect off of the features. Electrical resistivity- two electrodes are placed in the ground, electric current is run between them, strength of current is measured, weaker current= greater resistance. Must be used in soil with some amount of water. Test excavations (test pits) Wheeler-Kenyon method Stratigraphy- study of strata (layers of deposits). Law of superposition- where a layer overlies another layer, the bottom layer was deposited first. Provenience (datum)- is important but impossible for every artifact, mainly artifacts of importance. Locus/lot- portion of an excavated site, for which artifacts seem to belong together, spatial dimensions are recorded, way of recording provenience without having to record tens of thousands of artifacts. Salvage archaeology- archaeological survey and excavation carried out in areas threatened by construction or development. Cultural resource management Historical dating- determining dates using historical records. Important: different people used different systems for measuring time. Often, time is counted either backwards or forwards from a known date. Absolute dating- the process of determining a specific date for an archaeological site or artifact. Relative dating- estimates the order of prehistoric and geological events by using basic stratigraphic rules (layering). Can determine sequential order but not when. Index fossil concept Time markers Cartouche Terminus post quem- ?limit after which? in Latin. The earliest point in time in which something could have been made. Terminus ante quem- ?limit before which? in Latin. The latest point in time something may have happened. Three-Age System Stone- most remains are of stone, although pottery in late Stone Age. Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic Bronze- marks the beginnings of complex metallurgical practices: mining, smelting, alloying of metals. Iron Seriation- ordering of artifacts by style or form into chronological order. Assemblage- a group of artifacts recurring together at a particular time and place, and representing the sum of human activities. Typology- the result of the classification of things according to their characteristics. Dendrochronology- the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. Radiocarbon dating- is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 to determine the age of carbonaceous materials. Potassium argon dating- is a dating method based on measuring the products of the radioactive decay of potassium. Chronology BC/BCE- AD/CE BP- before present. Egyptian New Kingdom- period of time where many of the most important Pharaohs of Egypt were buried. Valley of the Kings- Egyptian Pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings from around 1550 BC- 1069 BC. Pharoah Antechamber- storeroom for various grave goods: couches, food, chariots, furniture. Annex- found of the Antechamber. Filled with goods, extensively rifled through. Burial Chamber- mostly filled with a giant gilded shrine. Treasury- adjacent to the Burial Chamber. Sarcophagus- basically a stone coffin. Canopic jars- used to store and preserve the viscera of their own for the afterlife. Bioarchaeology- refers to the scientific study of human archaeological remains. Osteoarchaeology- study of human skeletal remains elsewhere in the world. Paleopathology- the study of ancient diseases. Paleodemography- study of ancient human mortality, fertility, and migration. Genetics- science of heredity. Sciatic Notch- used to determine sex of a skeleton. Epiphyses- bones grow through the fusing of the epiphyses, located on the end of long bones. The degree of fusion indicates how much growth has gone on. Pubic Symphysis- where pelvic bones join in the front, tends to become more smooth through time. Difficult with females, childbirth. Auricular surface- where pelvis joins the sacrum in the back, becomes rougher through time. Can be used to determine age through a greater amount of time than pubic symphysis, not effected during childbirth. Osteomyelitis- inflammation of the bone due to infection Periostosis- inflammation of outer layers of bone. Porotic hyperotosis-caused by anemia, often found in the skull, bone becomes porous as the bosy mines it for iron. Rickets- Vitamin D deficiency, bones become bent. Osteoarthritis- usually occurs with age, but young people can have it as well. Bony spurs formed on adjacent parts of adjoining long bones and vertebrae. Caries- dental cavities. Trepanation Bone chemisty (strontium isotope analysis)- levels of strontium, lead, and oxygen are different in different places. These elements are absorbed by the body, and deposited in bones and teeth. Can say if a person came from the local area or moved from a different place. DNA- DNA testing can be used to determine familial relationships as well as descent. Hunter-gatherer- for the majority of human existence, humans relied on hunting and gathering as a way of obtaining food. Levant- during the glaciation-fewer people living in the area. After glaciers melt and climate improves, population grows, referred to as the Kebaran culture in the Levant. Carrying capacity- the size of a population the landscape can support. Greater carrying capacity=better climatic conditions=more food=greater population. Younger Dryas-around 11,000-9,000 BC, the climate suddenly became colder and drier again. Carrying capacity is too low to support the population that has already established itself. Natufian- for the first time people were sedentary or at least semi sedentary, small-scale farming practices, production of surplus necessary for farming and sedentism. Sedentism- people settling down and living in one area. Domestication- genetic modification of plants or animals to make them dependent on humans. Takes many generations to produce through selective breeding. Domesticate Agriculture- allows more people to spread into areas that would not support higher populations as before. Small-scale Farming- people began to plant their own crops, usually the seeds of wild grasses. Intensive Agriculture- increased labor output into agricultural practices for greater output from the same batch of land. Craft Specialization- because of surplus, not everyone needed to farm for their own food. Allowed for people to produce other things which could then be traded for food. Systems of trading, authority over surplus. Secondary Products Revolution- animals and some plants begin to be used for other products besides their meat. New period of domestication, beginning of intensive agriculture. Irrigation- transportation of water away from rivers or other sources to fields Terracing- ?steps? cut into the hillside to make greater surface area for the planting of crops. Tokens- small stone, clay, or bone objects that are carved into different shapes, believed to have been part of an accounting system used for the trading of grain and other things. Bullae- tokens were being contained in ?envelopes? of clay, called bullae. Cylinder Seals- pieces of stone, which contained the carving of a representational device that was unique to and individual. Left an impression when rolled across soft clay. Writing systems- - writing systems come in three major groupings: logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic. Sumerian pictographic- a writing system derived directly from the shapes of tokens. Kish Tablet- first writing. Cuneiform- writing system used throughout Mesopotamian history from its invention around 3100 BC until 75 AD. Bone tags- tags made of bone associated with jars and other objects in the Tomb of U-I, thought to belong to King Scorpion. Inscribed on the tags were names and places. Probably denoted ownership or identity of the donor to help ensure place in the afterlife. Logographic system Chinese Mayan hieroglyphs Syllabic system Syllabary Linear B- script used by the Mycenaeans in Bronze Age Greece (1600-1200 BC). Number of symbols seemed to indicate it was a syllabary. Cypro-Syllabic alice clover, Thomas Alphabetic systems Proto-Sinaitic- prisoners developed their own system of writing. Egyptians would write the first letter of someone?s name on documents, prisoners learned all of the symbols related to the sounds in their language, and invented the first alphabet. Proto-Canaanite- direct descendant of Proto-Sinaitic, used from 1500-1050 BC primarily in the Levant. Phoenician- direct continuation of proto-canaanite, used from 1050 BC- 1st century BC. People who lived in the area of modern-day Lebanon, who were renowned traders and spread their culture and writing system throughout the Mditerranean. Greek- Greek alphabet was adapted from the Phoenician alphabet, with some changes. Vowels added, transmission preserved in the myth of Cadmus, called ?Cadmian letters. Etruscan- adopted the Greek alphabet and made small changes to it, around 700BC Latin- Descendant of Caerean version of Etruscan alphabet. Underwent small changes through time, spread through Europe during the Roman Empire, now the basis for most writing systems today. Mixed systems Egyptian hieroglyphs- independently developed in Egypt, very elaborate and complex. Cuneiform Rebus principle- symbols represent the sound, not just what is being shown. Scapulomancy-use of scapulae (shoulder blades of animals) typically cattle, to predict the future. Thrown into a fire, the bone would crack, and the pattern of cracks would be interpreted into a prophecy. Hieratic- Cursive form of hieroglyphs- developed in Egypt shortly after the invention of hieroglyphic writing. More for everyday texts. Coptic- language used by the Coptic church, a Christian religious sect in Egypt. Knowledge of this language became important to the decipherment of hieroglyphs and demotic. Undeci- linear a, Indus valley, proto-something Demotic- preceding Coptic. Abjad system- a type of writing in which each symbol stand for a consonant; the reader must apply the right vowel. Scribes- people who were specifically trained how to write. Dead language- a language which is no longer spoken by native speakers. Native speaker- someone who learned language by typical language acquisition. Decipherment- process of determining the meaning of the symbols of a writing system. Cartouche- an oblong enclosure with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name. Archaeological Evidence and Inference What are the four types of archaeological evidence? Artifacts, features, ecofacts (any object that may or may not have been an artifact, tree branch or pollen), and sites. How do provenience and matrix relate to each other? Matrix is the surrounding soil deposits whereas provenience is the position of the find in dimensional space. Archaeologists have identified four main stages in the life of an artifact. What is the order of these stages that an artifact passes through? What occurs in each stage? Acquisition- the process of obtaining necessary raw materials to make the object. Manufacture- the modification of raw material by a variety of means. Use- using an object for its intended or unintended use. Desposition- process by which the artifact becomes a part of the archaeological record. Deposition: The cultural remains that are left behind are rarely in their place of use (except in cases such as Pompeii where the natural disaster of a volcano preserved a moment in time). Usually, the artifacts that archaeologists find are trash deposits. What are the major types of artifacts? What type of information can each of these artifacts types provide archaeologists? The major types are: Ceramics- construction of chronologies through change in style, can suggest connections to other cultures, scientific analysis can determine the source of the clay used, firing technologies, and the contents of the vessel. Lithics- can give information on food production activities as well as warfare and other aspects of society. The climate/environment affects how well archaeological remains are preserved. What are the affects(?) of certain climates/environments on the archaeological remains? What types of artifacts do we have little remaining evidence of? Tropical Climates- worst for preservation, heavy rains, erosion, acidic soils, major root damage, major damage from animals. Temperate Climates- Variable temperature and fluctuating rainfall contribnte to decay. Dry Climates- good for preservation, lack of water prohibits survival of microorganisms responsible for decay. Cold environments- good for preservation, stops the action of microorganisms. Wet environments- good for preservation, as long as remains are continually waterlogged from the time of deposition. Paleobotanical remains provide evidence of ancient plants. What are the two methods that were discussed that archaeologists use to isolate paleobotanical remains? Flotation, coring, ogarding. Reading: Sharer, R.J. and W. Ashmore. 2003. Forms of Archaeological Data, in Archaeology: Discovering Our Past, pp. 120-127. New York: McGraw-Hill. Archaeological Field Methods What are the four phases of archaeological research? What happens in each phase? Research design- Pupose of archaeological research is to answer a question about ancient society, not to collect artifacts. Often includes a question, can be specific or very broad. Collection of Evidence- Two main ways of gathering archaeological date: survey and excavation. Analysis- the data must be analyzed and interpreted, in order to figure out what the artifacts say about the past in the excavated areas. Publication- Most important part, information must be shared with other archaeologists, as well as the public, in order to justify archaeological endeavors. What are the two main ways of collecting archaeological data? Survey and Excavation. Aerial survey/ reconnaissance vs. ground survey/ reconnaissance - how are each of these conducted? Know the following tools and methods: aerial photography- taking pictures from planes to discover new sites or other things such as detecting change in vegitation patterns or depth of soil to determine where buried structures may be. Satellite imagery- can hlp increase the resolution of images. Sampling- areas to be surveyed are chosen either randomly, or intentionally to produce a representative sample. Transects- a strip of land that is chosen to be surveyed, walk along the transect looking for artifacts on the ground surface. Ground penetrating radar (GPR)- radio waves sent into the ground, and they reflect off of the features. Can then produce a 3D model of what is below ground level. Electrical Resistivity- two electrodes are placed in the ground, electric current is run between them, strength of current is measured, weaker current = greater resistance. Extensive vs. intensive survey- Extensive-Combining results from a series of individual projects in eighboring regions to produce very large-scall view of change in landscape, land used, and settlement through time. Intensive- a survey can be made more intensive by aiming at total coverage of a single large site or site-cluster. What are the pros and cons of subsurface survey? Pros- detailed analysis of the material remains in a region, provides a broad view of the landscape, cheaper than excavation. Cons- significant time and labor investment, sampling strategies can miss important sites, sites may be deep underground. Archaeologists do not have the means to fully investigate a site or all sites in a region. For this reason, they sample. What kinds of sampling to archaeologists employ? Probalistic sampling, non-probalistic sampling, random samling, stratified random sample, systematic sampling How do archaeologists determine where to excavate? Sampling, looking at aerial photography, subsurface survey. Excavations involve trying to understanding horizontal and vertical relationships of the cultural material. What can horizontal relationships tell us vs. vertical relationships? Human activity takes place horizontally in space, and change occurs vertically through time. What is the Wheeler-Kenyon method? How is this different than other excavation techniques such as open-area and step-trenching? Dividing an archaeological site into a grid. What is the Law of Superposition and why is it relevant to archaeology? Where a layer overlies another layer, the bottom layer was deposited first. What is provenience? How is provenience related to archaeological loci/lots? Provenience is the position of a find in dimensional space, a locus or lot is a way of recording provenience without having to record tens of thousands of artifacts. What is the ratio between time spent excavating and the time needed to analyze the material that came out of excavation? 1 day of excavation=1 week of analysis. What are pros and cons of excavation? What is salvage archaeology and why is it conducted? Doing an excavation before a site is destroyed by things like highways and buildings. Reading: Renfrew, C. and P. Bahn. 2008. Archaeology, 5th edition. Chapter 3: Where? Survey and Excavation of Sites and Features, pp. 73-120, (optional: pp. 76, left ½ of 77, 80, 81, 84, 85, 92, 93, 98, left ½ of 99, 102-104, 106, 109-111). New York: Thames and Hudson. Dating Methods What are the three kinds of dating methods that archaeologists use? Which are considered ?scientific?? Historical (Kings lists), Relative, and Absolute. Two scientific types are relative and absolute dating. Why is Egyptian chronology important? How was/is it constructed? Constructed through the use of Kings Lists: lists of the names of the rulers of Egypt and how long they ruled. This is important because with the dates for certain phroahs generally known, when artifacts bearing their names are found in other parts of the near east we can then determine a terminus post quem. How do stratigraphy, the Law of Superposition, and seriation relate to each other? The law of superposition could indicate which artifact types or styles were older than other forms in particular sites, but stratigraphy or index fossil concept could relate one site to another, then led to seriation which refined this by using changes in the frequencies of artifact or styles to date sites relative to one another. What is the index fossil concept and how is it related to archaeology? Widely separated strata can be correlated and assigned to the same time period if they contain the same fossils, in archaeology you just replace fossils with artifacts. What is dendrochronology? How is it conducted? What are its drawbacks? Trees grow in a predictable fashion, with rings of varying size each year, based on environmental conditions. The light rings are a year?s spring/summer growth, the dark rings are that years late summer/ fall growth. Drawback is that tree ring dates only give the information on when the tree was cut down, wooden artifacts can still be used for many years after this. What is radiocarbon dating? How is it conducted? What are its drawbacks? How did dendrochronology help refine radiocarbon dating? How did accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) help refine radiocarbon dating? To relcalibrate the date to improve accuracy. It allowed archaeologist to use much smaller amounts of carbon. What is potassium argon dating? How is it conducted? What are its drawbacks? Very old materials, more than 10,000 years old. Absolute dating method, used to date sediments. Argon is a gas, which typically diffuses into the atmosphere, sometimes it is unable to escape from the body of rock, provides a date for when the rock solidified. Potassium, a much longer half life. Any time you cant use radiocarbon dating. What is thermoluminescence dating? How is it conducted? What are its drawbacks? Use on ceramics, dates cumulative radiation dose. Absolute dating. What are the names of the time periods in the three age system? Stone, bronze and iron. The Stone Age is usually divided into three parts? What are they? Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic. Reading: Thomas, D. H. and R. L. Kelly. 2007. Chronology Building: How to Get a Date, in Archaeology: Down to Earth, 3rd edition, pp. 98-113. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth. Designing Archaeological Research: What characterized the Egyptian New Kingdom? Who were some of the famous Pharoahs associated with this period? It was a period of time where many of the most important Pharaohs of Egypt were buried, Egypt had a large empire that reached all the way to the Euphrates River, very wealthy period. Thutmose III, Hatshepsut, Rameses II, Seti I. What is the Valley of the King?s? Where is it? Why is it located where it is (i.e. on the west bank and in this hilly region? It is located in the eastern dessert on the Nile in Luxor. The tombs were built in the Valley of the Kings to hide tombs from robbers and because of its natural pyramid. What is Deir el-Medina? Where the workers for the tombs lived. A secluded village. Theodore Davis was an American who had the commission to work in the Valley of the Kings. What important finds are attributed to him? Tombs of Yuya and Tuya, KV54: ?Amarna Cache? Who was Lord Carnarvon? An English aristocrat the became interested in Egyptology, funded excavations starting in 1907. Who was Howard Carter? Who did he study archaeology under? What was positions did he hold? An English archaeologist, student of Flinders Petrie, inspector general of monuments of upper Egypt, inspector general of monuments of lower Egypt. How was Howard Carter able to locate the tomb of Tutankhamun? What year was the tomb found? What was the first indication of the presence of a tomb? A step was discovered in bedrock, Nov 4, 1922. A plaster sealing wall was found, name of a king was found near the bottom. How did Howard Carter conduct the excavations of the tomb of Tutankhamun? He carefully documented and photographed each artifact in its original context. Nearby tombs were used as labs, for storage, darkrooms, and photography studios. What was the layout of the tomb? What was the function of each of the rooms? What types of artifacts were found in each room? Contained four rooms: the antechamber- storeroom for various grave goods, couches, food, chariots. Annex- filled with good, rifled through. Burial chamber- filled with a giant gilded shrine, artifacts were plaved around the shrine, 4 shrines and finally sarchophagus. Treasury- contained golden shrine containing canopic jars, mummies of two stillborn children. What tombs have been found in the Valley of the King?s since the discovery? How were these tombs found and what function did they serve? They were found by ground-penetrating radar, they may be undisturbed. KV 63, 64, and 65. Reading: Fagan, Chapter 9: Howard Carter and Tutankhamun, pp. 193-220. Bioarchaeology What is bioarchaeology? Who coined the term? What other disciplines lend their principles to bioarchaeology? Coined by ASU professor Jane Buikstra. Refers to the scientific study of human archaeological remains. Includes principles of osteoarchaeology, palaeopathology, palaeolodemography, genetics. What kind of information can be obtained through studying human bone? Health, diet, division of labor, patterns of movement, familial relationships, how a person died, sex, age, amount of heavy labor, diseases). What features of a human skeleton can help identify sex? How? Skulls - brow ridges, mastoid process Long Bones ? robustness and length Pelvis ? Sciatic notch, ventral arc, subpubic concavity, ischiopubic ramus What features of a human skeleton can help identify age? How? Epiphyses ? degree of fusion, can only be used on a person that had not finished growing. Teeth ? pre-adults vs. adults Pubic symphsis ? tends to become more smooth through time, difficult to use with females as childbirth can effect this making it older looking. Auricular surface ? tends to become rougher through time, as well as change in shape. What examples of disease and trauma that can be identified by examination of the human skeleton were covered in class? Osteomyelitis, periostosis, porotic hyperostosis, rickets, osteoarthritis, caries, trepanation. How can examination of the human skeleton determine what type of labor a person undertook? At Abu Hureyra, what skeletal traits are signs of extra and sometimes excessive strains caused by the carrying of loads? Deformed the bones of the upper spine, disk damage. What skeletal traits are signs of the grinding of grain with querns and rubbing stones? The big toe hyperflexed, the spine bony growths, the leg developes buttress. What skeletal traits indicate a gendered division of labor? Toe, spine, legs for women. How can bioarchaeologists examine migration? Migration of people can be measured through examination oftheir bone chemistry. How can cannibalism be determined through skeletal remains? Cut marks and their patterning, burning. What use does DNA testing have in archaeology? Know the example of DNA testing discussed in class. Can be used to determine familial relationships, as well as descent. What are some of the ethical considerations that bioarchaeologists deal with? In the Near East, the introduction of pottery during the Neolithic had what effect on the human skeleton? The grains could be soaked and cooked, made the cereals softer so wear on teeth was reduced. However, it increased dental caries. Reading: Molleson, T. 1994. The eloquent bones of Abu Hureyra. Scientific American vol. 217, no. 2, pp. 70-75. Domestication and the Origins of Agriculture What are some of the characteristics of the hunter-gather lifestyle? Mobile population, egalitarian social system. What was the climate in the Pleistocene and the Younger Dryas in the Near East? The climate was colder and drier. What is the concept of carrying capacity? How is it related to the climate? The size of a population the landscape can support. Greater carrying capacity=better climatic conditions=more food= greater population. When did small-scale farming appear in the Levant? What is the archaeological evidence of this small-scale farming? Around 11,000-9,000, during the Natufian Period. Begin to see first signs of people settling down and living in one area- sedentism. Sickle blades? What is domestication? What are some examples of domesticates? When and where did they first become domesticated (for map identification)? Genetic modification of plants or animals to make them dependent on humans. Learn map. In the Levant, domestication, agriculture, and sedentism appear during what period? Neolithic Period. What is craft specialization? What enabled craft specialization? What did craft specialization lead to? How do we identify craft specialization archaeologically? Once there became a surplus, not everyone needed to farm for their own food, allowed for people to produce other things which could then be traded for food. What was the Secondary Products Revolution? When did it occur in the Near East? What were the effects of the Secondary Products Revolution? What are some examples of plants/animals and their secondary products? Animals and some plants begin to be used for other products besides their meat. Occurred about 5000 BC in the Near East. It facilitated an even greater level of production, intensive agriculture, and greater trade. Oxen castration, donkey, grapes, olives, orchard fruits, cotton, horse, camel, silkworm. As agriculture became intensified, new agricultural practices developed. These included irrigation and terracing. What are these practices and how did help? Irrigation allowed people to transport water away from its original place. Terracing are steps cut into the hillside made greater surface area for the planting of crops. What were the consequences and effects of agriculture? Why does Diamond call the introduction of agriculture ?The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race?? Consequences- production of surplus allows for greater population, production of crafts. Neg effects- mental effects, environmental effects. Why do we think people settled down to farm? Population increase, thought the benefits outweighed the costs. Reading: Diamond, Jared. 1987. ?The worst mistake in the history of the human race,? Discover, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 64-66. Origins of Writing What was happening just prior to the development of writing? ?REWORD What were Mesopotamian tokens? What was the function of these tokens? Small stone, clay or bone objects that are carved into different shapes, used as an accounting system used for the trading of grain and other foodstuffs. What were bullae? What was their function and how were they related to tokens? Envelopes for tokens. What were cylinder seals and what was their function? Pieces of stone, which contained the carving of a representational device that was unique to an individual. Left impressions when rolled across soft clay. What were impressions? Why did they replace bullae and tokens? Tokens were impressed into the bullae in which they would be contained, to further insure the integrity of the transaction. Eventually tokens are no longer included in bullae, just the impression appear. What was the first form of writing? What is the name of the artifact that contains the first evidence of writing? How is it related to the Mesopotamian tokens? The first writing appears in Sumer around 3500 BC- Kish Tablet. It was derived directly from the shapes of tokens. What is cuneiform? Where was it used? How is it different than the Sumerian pictographic writing system? What function did the writing serve? A writing system used throughout Mesopotamian history, used on trade documents and educational documents. It differs because it is more abstract. Know the difference between a writing system and a language. How did the Egyptian writing system evolve? What was the function of bone tags? What are Egyptian Hieroglyphs? What is Hieratic? Thought to have evolved out of logographic system, by the time the tags appear, rebus principle is being used-symbols represent the sound not just what is being shown. Egyptian hieroglyphs- very elaborate and complex system of writing. Hieratic- cursive form of hieroglyphs. Bone tags were tages made of bone that were associated with jars and other objects in the tomb of U-i. How did the Chinese writing system evolve? What is scapulomancy and how is it related to the development of writing in China? Writing develops independently in China around 1500 BC (Shang Dynasty), earliest evidence appears to have been connected with the practice of scapulomancy. Scapulomancy- the use of scapulae to predict the future, this lead to writing because it was important for making sure the original prophecy is recorded and not changed. What is an alphabet? What is the first documented alphabet? How did it develop? What other alphabets were discussed in class? How are they related to each other? Prisoners developed it because Egyptians would write the first letter of someones name on documents when handing out rations, prisoners learned all of the symbols related to the sounds in their language, and invented the first alphabet. Alphabets- Proto-Sinaitic, proto-Canaanite (derived from previous), Phoenician (derived from previous), Greek, Etruscan, Latin Alphabet, all derived from the one before it. How was writing related to craft specialization? Not everyone was able to read, scribes were people who were specifically trained how to write. How was writing used as an instrument of control? Controlling the flow of information could help perpetuate ideologies of power in order to keep control. What is the significance of writing for archaeologists? Written records provide a unique insight into the lives and minds of ancient peoples. Chronologies, reconstruction of events, and other aspects of culture and history can be discussed. Periods of time where written records exist= historical period. No written records=prehistory. What is the difference between being literate and being literary (see Lamberg-Karlovsky 66)? Literate- bureaucratic administrators. Literary- poets, mythologists, diviners. Reading: Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C. 2003. ?To Write or not To Write.? In Potts, T, M. Roaf & D. Stein. Culture through Objects. London: Griffith. Dead Languages, History and Archaeology What is a dead language? What are some examples? Are there native speakers of dead languages? A dead language is a language which is no longer spoken by native speakers (Egyptian, Latin, Sumerian, Greek). Yes. What is decipherment? The process of determining the meaning of the symbols lf a writing system. How were Egyptian Hieroglyphs deciphered? By Champollion. What is the Rosetta Stone and what are the languages on it? Had the writing of Hieroglyphs, Demotic, and ancient Greek. Who worked on the decipherment of the Rosetta Stone? Sacy, Akerblad, Young, Champollion. Who is considered to be the person who cracked the code? Champollion. What feature of the hieroglyphic section finally led to decipherment? Rameses, cartouches. How is the rebus principle related to Egyptian hieroglyphs? Symbols represent sound not just what is being shown, phonetics. What are the three major systems of writing? How are they different? What are some examples of each writing system? What is a mixed system and what are some examples? Logographic- a symbol is used to represent an entire word, Chinese, Mayan hieroglyphs. Syllabic- one symbol represents s syllable of a word, 50-70 characters, Linear B, Cypro-Syllabic. Alphabetic- each symbol represents one sound, 20-30 symbols, Latin, Arabic, Hebrew, Greek. Mixed systems- Egyptian hieroglyphs, cuneiform. How was Linear B deciphered? Who worked on the decipherment of Linear B? What language is written in the Linear B script? Alice Kober noticed that certain symbols recurred in the same pattern. Michael Ventris arranged symbols into grids according to what signs seemed to have similar consonants and vowels. Ventris discovered cypro-syllabic had similar signs which allowed him to assign actual consonants and vowels to the symbols on his grid, language proved to be Greek. What are some examples of languages that still aren?t deciphered? Cypro-Minoan, LinearA/ Chretan Hieroglyphs, Proto-Elamite. What are the benefits and pitfalls for archaeologists of having written records? Are written records always accurate? Know the example of the Battle of Qadesh(sp)? Through using records, archaeologists can tell more about historical events. Often times writing was used to promote the power and glory of those who were able to wirte. Also, writing was sometimes used to make what was written real. Battle- Both Kings described victories when in reality it was more of a stalemate as suggested by the peace treaty found. How is writing related to propoganda and the state control of power? Reading: Singh, S. 2001. The decipherment of hieroglyphs. HYPERLINK "http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/" http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ Archaeology in the Media How was archaeology often perceived by the general public? How did the rise of scientific archaeology alter the kinds of narratives archaeologists promoted about themselves? Real archaeologists have differing views of the most influential cinematic archaeologist, Indiana Jones? What are the critiques and praises that have been written about Indiana Jones? What are the differences between popular film portrayals of archaeology as a professions and reality? Focus on what archaeologists do, who they do it for, and how archaeologists are able to make a living. What is it about archaeology that entices filmmakers? What are the kinds of roles/depictions of archaeologists in film? (Hero, villain, victim, character in peril, secondary character, etc). How were archaeologists portrayed in early film vs. how are they portrayed in more recent films (non-hero to hero, sexless to oversexed, etc). How do films affect the relationship between archaeologists and the general public in terms of artifacts? What are some common themes/ plot devices in movies that portray archaeology (?in the past there were great technological wonders that have since been forgotten,? ?? ??) How have archaeological films influenced the public perception of gender roles in archaeology? How does a character?s ethnicity affect their portrayal? The Near East is the most frequent backdrop for archaeological films. What are the stereotypes of the Near Eastern landscape in these films? What are the stereotype of the local characters? How should archaeologists? deal with the preconceived notion of the profession? Reading: McGeough, Kevin. 2006. ?Heroes, Mummies, and Treasure: Near Eastern Archaeology in the Movies.? Near Eastern Archaeology vol 69 nos. 3-4, pp. 174-185. Decipherment of Egyptian, Jean Francias Champoleon Abjad system-
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