PGS101 ? Szeli Chapter 8 ? Intelligence OBJECTIVE 8.2 ?give a general definition of intelligence; and explain the g-factor, Intelligence-the global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the evironment. G-Factor- a.k.a general mental abilities, in the area of reasoning Problem solving, knowledge, memory, and successful adaptation to one?s surroundings OBJECTIVE 8.3 ? Describe the development of the original Stanford-Binet and the five cognitive factors measured by the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5). Binet started with examining a girl, who could be considered a genius because she was so young and could do all of these thing, and a boy, who could only write his own name and count. He wanted to prove to people that the boy was not necessarily slower but lazy. So Binet and an associate came up with a set of question that the average person of their age could answer and the two were tested. The first test assumed that a child?s intellectual abilities improve with each passing year. Now the Standford-Binet 5 test from age 2-85+ years. 5 Cognitive Factors- Fluid Reasoning- test the reasoning ability Knowledge- assesses the person?s knowledge of a wide range of topics Quantitative Reasoning- tests ability to solve numbers involving numbers. Visual-Spatial Processing- asks to reproduce patterns of blocks and choose pictures that show how piece of paper would look if it were folded or cut. Working Memory- the abillity to use short-term memory OBJECTIVE 8.4 ? Define mental age and chronological age; use examples to show how they are used to compute an intelligence quotient (IQ); differentiate between this IQ (MA/CA x 100) and deviation IQs; and explain how percentiles are interpreted. Mental Age-the average mental ability people display at a given age Based on the level of aged ranked questions a person can answer Chronological Age- a person?s age in years Used in unison with mental age Mental age (MA) divided by Chronological Age (CA) and multiplied by 100 MA/CA x 100 = IQ Deviation IQ- these scores are based on a person?s relative standing in his or her age group. Percentile- if you score in the 50th percentile then half of the people in your age group scored higher and half scored lower than you did. OBJECTIVE 8.5 ? Distinguish the Wechsler tests from the Stanford-Binet tests and between group and individual tests; and describe the distribution of IQ scores observed in the general population. Wechsler Test- specifically designed to test adult intelligence. SB5 was better for testing children. Both of the different types of intelligence tests were individual tests. The group intelligence tests can be given to a large group of people with minimal supervision. Usually require people to read, follow intructions, and solve problems of logic, reasoning, math, or spatial skills. EX. SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) The normal curve shows the distrubution of IQ scores of a general population. OBJECTIVE 8.8 ? Explain why psychologists are developing broader definitions of intelligence; and describe Howard Gardner?s theory of multiple intelligences. Psychologists are developing broader definitions because different people are smart in different things. Someone could be behind in reading but help their teacher solve a difficult computer-programing problem. A young girl can be really bad with math but be the best piano player you have every heard of. Howard Gardner- Harvard Univ., theorizes that there are 8 different kinds of intelligence which are all different ?languages? that people use for thinking. Language- ?word smart? Logic and math- ?number smart? Visual and Spatial thinking- ?picture smart? Music- ?Musically smart? Bodily-Kinesthetic skills- ?Body Smart? Intrapersonal Skills- ?Self Smart? Interpersonal Skills- ?People Smart? Naturalist skills- ?nature smart? Traditional IQ tests only measure a part of real-world intelligence. OBJECTIVE 8.10 ? Describe the studies that provide evidence for the hereditary view and for the environmental view of intelligence, including the twin studies, the adoption studies, Skeels? study, IQ gains in Westernized nations, and the effects of video games, the Internet, and television. Environmental view of intelligence- Parents treat twins more alike than ordinary siblings, resulting in a closer match in IQ?s Hereditary view of intelligence- identical twins who grown up in the same family have highly correlated IQ?s Fraternal twins are no more alike than ordinary siblings Twin that are separarted only IQ?s drop a little by 20 points With an adopted child the ?parents? only contribute the environment, the child will then be more like their hereditary parents. Westernized nations- IQ gains of 15 pts during last 30 years. May result in improved education, nutrition, and living in a technologically complex society. Video games-
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