prisoners who acted as trustees, having special priviledges
"former prisoners often say, "we dislike talking about our experiences. No explanations are needed for those..."
"who have been inside, and the others will understand neither how we felt nor how we feel now."
Frankl felt the "best" prisoners did not survive the experience.
Those that survived after a few years lost all morals and would use all means, honest or otherwise, in order to stay alive. (betray friends, brute force, and theft)
Did Frankl work as a psychiatrist in the camp?
What is the first phase of the inmate's mental reaction to camp life?
What is the "delusion of reprieve"?
It won't happen to me syndrome, believing you will be saved at the last minute
What was the first selection?
A separation of those who could work from those who could not and were sent to die
Could prisoners keep one small thing?
Curiosity ofter evolved into surprise.
Who said, "Yes, a man can get used to anything, but do not ask us how."?
The prisoners of the concentration camps
What is "A man who looks miserable, down and out, sick and emaciated, and who cannot manage hard physical labor any longer..."?
In the second stage of the prisoner's psychological reactions, there is apathy and a blunting of emotion.
"The most painful part of the beatings is the insult which they imply."
Was Frankl ever befriended by a Capo?
Frankl regarded discussions about food dangerous.
What city did Frankl go through on the way from Auschwitz to Dachau?
"The truth--that love is the ultimate and the highest goal to which man can aspire...The salvation of man is through love and in love."
Frankl believes that the experience of beauty in nature can enable a prisoner to transcend his current miserable environment.
Frankl sensed that his spirit could transcend his hopeless and meaningless world.
All suffering is relative
What is one of the camps most imperative laws of self-preservation
Do not be conspicuous
Prisoners literally became numbers
Frankl generally tried to answer all questions truthfully
Did Frankl ever have a chance to escape?
The majority of the prisoners suffered from a ind of inferiority complex.
Regardless of environmental conditions, all women and men have a freedom to choose how to think about their situations.
Dostoevski: "There is only one thing I dread: not be worthy of my own sufferings"
"Suffering is an ineradicable part of life, even as fate and death. Without suffering and death life can not be complete."
There was a woman who was about to die. She felt that her only friend was a tree.
The most depressing influence on prisoners was not knowing how long his term of imprisonment would be.
Even in a concentration camp, Frankl believes that in-mates can have meaningful futures and goals.
"It is a peculiarity of man that he can only live by looking to the future--sub specie aeternitatis"
"Emotion, which is suffering, ceases to be suffering as soon as we form a clear and precise picture of it."
Nietzsche: "He who has a why to live for can bear with almost any how."
"Life ultimately means taking responsibility to find the right answer to its problems and to fulfill the tasks which it constantly sets for each...
individual. These tasks, and therefore the meaning of life, differ from man to man, and from moment to moment. Thus it is impossible to define the meaning in life in a general way. Questions about the meaning of life can never be answered by sweeping statements."
Rilke: "Wie viel ist aufzulieden!"
(How much suffering there is to get through!)
Was du erlebst, kann keine Macht der Welt Dir rauben"
(What you have experienced, no power on earth can take from you.)
Frankl always believed that boundaries between camp guards and prisoners (devils and angels) overlapped.
The prisoners were not totally pleased upon their first day of freedom. (pg 109-110)
"The crowning experience of all, for the homecoming man, is the wonderful feeling that, after all he has suffered..."
"there is nothing he need fear anny more-- except his God"
"Logotherapy focuses...on the future...on the meanings to be fulfilled by the patient in the future.
(Logotherapy, indeed, is a meaning-centered psychotherapy)"
"Logos is a Greek word which denotes "meaning'."
"...mental health is based on a certain degree of tension, the tension between
what one has already achieved and what one still ought to accomplish, or the gap between what one is and what one should become.”
"The existential vacuum manifests itself mainly in a state of boredom."
"The meaning of life differs from man to man, from day to day and from hour to hour. What matters, therefore, is not the meaning of life in general but
rather the specific meaning of a person's life at a given moment...One should not search for an abstract meaning of life...everyone's task is as unique as is his specific opportunity to implement it."
The categorical imperative of logotherapy is: "Live as if you were living already for the second time and...
as if you had acted the first time as wrongly as you are about to act now!"
"...being human always points, and is directed, to something, or someone, other than oneself--be it a meaning to fulfill or another human being to encounter
The more one forgets himself--by giving himself to a cause to serve or another person to love---the more human he is and the more he actualizes himself."
"...we can discover this meaning of life in three different ways:
(1) by creating a work or doing a deed, (2) by experiencing something or encountering someone, (3) by the attitude we take toward unavoidable suffering
"Love is the only way to grasp another human being in the innermost core of his personality. No one can become fully aware of the very essence of...
another human being unless he loves him. By his love he is enabled to see the essential traits and features in the beloved person; and even more, he sees that which is potential for hum, which is not yet actualized but yet ought to be actualized. Furthermore, by his love, the loving person enables the beloved person to actualized these potentials. By making him aware of what he can be and of what hi should become, he makes these potentialities come true."
"But let me make it perfectly clear that in no way is suffering necessary to find meaning. I only insist that meaning is possible even in spite of...
suffering---provided, certainly that the suffering is unavoidable."
"The odds of surviving the camp were no more than one in 28"
What is the logotherapy technique of "paradoxical intention"?
The phobic patient is invited to intend, even is only for a moment, precisely that which he fears; uses patient's sense of humor and ability to detach from themselves to form a type of "cure".
"Paradoxical intention is no panacea."
“The existential vacuum which is the mass neurosis of the present time can be described as a private and personal form of nihilism; for nihilism
can be defined as the contention that being has no meaning.”
“… man is ultimately self-determining. Man does not simply exist but always decides what his existence will be,
what he will become in the next moment.”
“In concentration camps, for example, in this living laboratory and on this testing ground, we watched and witnessed some of our comrades behave like swine
while others behaved like saints. Man has both potentialities within himself; which one is actualized depends on decisions but not on conditions.”
“a tragic optimism”: “…it means that one is, …, optimistic in spite of the ‘tragic triad,’ as it is called in logotherapy, a triad which may be circumscribed by:
(1) pain; (2) guilt; and (3) death.”
. “As Irvin D. Yalom of Stanford University states in Existential Psychotherapy:
‘Of forty consecutive patients applying for therapy at a psychiatric outpatient clinic … twelve (30 percent) had some major problem involving meaning …”
What are the three facets of the mass neurotic syndrome?
1) depression, 2) aggression, 3) addiction
“… the perception of meaning, as I see it, … boils down to becoming aware of a possibility against the background of reality or
to express it in plain words, to becoming aware of what can be done about a given situation.
“Since Auschwitz we know what man is capable of. And since Hiroshima we know what is at stake.”
His brilliance as a writer was recognised with the award of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1964, which, however, he declined to accept for political reasons.”
“His (Sartre) specific contribution is to show both the desire for and fear of freedom at work in the dynamics of human relationships,…”
“The world as such is meaningless, absurd.”
Sartre and Nausea
“Nausea offers a powerful critique of bourgeois life as well as a description of disintegrated psyche. Some psychedelic passages in the novel were possibly influenced by Sartre’s depression in 1935, during which he had allowed himself to injected with mescaline…”
Born in October 1906 in Königsberg, then in East Prussia and now a part of Russia, into a well-to-do bourgeois family, liberal and tolerant outlook.
What great philosopher (1772-1804) was born in Konigsberg?
Role of women in Prussia during the time of Kant?
Children, cooking/kitchen, church
What is the categorical imperative?
the maxim (statements we value and live our lives by.); the rules and the customs that YOU live by, I should live by them too. If I believe something and it works for me, then you should do it too. (Ex: Torture, if I do it to you, then I’m saying it’s okay to do it to me.
Largely educated herself because of leaving school when anti-Semitic statements were made.
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