1 ANTH 200: Introduction to Physical Anthropology Instructor: Josh Sadvari Midterm Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5: Biology in the Present: Living People What do we mean when we say that ?race? is a socially-constructed concept that is not biologically valid? What is the purpose of adaptation? What are the four major types of adaptations? - Of these four types, which two are lumped under the category of functional adaptations? - Define functional adaptations and be able to provide some examples. Skin color adaptation is based on a balance between two main factors. What are these factors? - How might these two factors have influenced skin color adaptations in different geographical regions of the world during our evolutionary past? Words to know: - cline - homeostasis - Franz Boas - stressors Chapter 6: Biology in the Present: The Other Living Primates Speciation concepts - How does the biological species concept define a species in nature? - Discuss the differences between pre-mating and post-mating reproductive isolating mechanisms. - Provide some examples of each type of RIM. - Which type of RIM is favored by natural selection? - Differentiate between allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation. - Define adaptive radiation and provide two examples of this natural process. Primate taxonomy - What are the defining anatomical/behavioral characteristics of prosimians compared to anthropoid primates? - What are the two infraorders of anthropoid primates, and how do they differ in terms of morphological traits? - Discuss the anatomical differences between apes and monkeys? - What are the three families within Superfamily Hominoidea? What are the defining characteristics of these three families, and which of the ape species that we discussed belong to each family? Primate social behavior - Compare and contrast male and female reproductive strategies in terms of cooperation and competition. - What are the six types of primate social groups? Give examples of primate species that are associated with each of these six types. - What are the main factors influencing the development of a particular type of primate social group? - Discuss the reproductive (life history) strategies associated with primates. Words to know: - Jane Goodall - sexual dimorphism - prehensile tail 2 Chapter 7: Fossils and Their Place in Time and glyph817ature What are fossils, and what are the steps leading to fossilization? - Why are fossils considered to be essential for studying biological evolution? What is the difference between relative dating and absolute dating? - Describe the following relative dating methods: - Law of superposition - Fluorine dating - What are the two major types of absolute dating techniques? - What is the relationship between isotopes, half-lives, and radioactive decay in terms of absolute dating techniques? How is the molecular clock used in genetic dating? - What does genetic dating tell us about the divergence times of the higher primates? Discuss the techniques used in reconstructing past environments and habitats. Focus specifically on techniques for reconstructing past climates (temperature) and dietary patterns. Words to know: - Pangaea - taphonomy Chapter 8: Primate Origins and Evolution: The First 50,000,000 Years Describe the three primary hypotheses for explaining the emergence of primates. What are the defining characteristics of the plesiadapiforms compared to the first true primates of the Eocene epoch? Why is the Fayum region of Egypt important in studying primate evolution? - Which genus found in the Fayum region is considered to be the most likely common ancestor of all later catarrhine primates? Describe the four hypotheses attempting to explain the origin of higher primates in the New World. - Based on genetic and anatomical evidence, which of these hypotheses is/are most strongly supported? Which epoch is characterized by an adaptive radiation of apes and ape migrations out of Africa? - Which of the Miocene apes from Asia was the largest primate ever to have lived? What are the factors contributing to the adaptive radiation and success of monkeys during the Late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene epochs and the decline in ape species at the same time? Words to know: - adapids - omomyids jwsadvari Microsoft Word - Study Guide Exam 2
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