Study guide exam 3
- University of Tennessee - Knoxville
- Anthropology 110
- Study guide exam 3
Last Modified: 2011-07-18
Related Textbooks:INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY (ELEVENTH EDITION WITH EVOLUTION OF THE BRAIN MODULE)
they thought they were tool makers.
found by Louis Leakey in olduvai gorge, Lake turkana
Had a big face and a big brain. 750 cc
1.9-1.8 Myr ago
KNM-WT 15000- Turkana Boy
KNM-ER 3733 - excelent rep of early HE
Characterized by bigger brain than anything seen up to that point.
why? - eating meat, increased social complexity, using tools.
most complete hominid fossil found.
5.5 ft tall when died.
found west side of lake turkana
excellent rep of early Homo erectus.
Archaic homo erectus. cranium short up and down, long < > in that direction.
homo erectus found by 1.8 million years ago
homo erectus found by 1.8 million years ago
homo erectus found 750 - 850 thousand years ago
- supra-orbital torus
- nuchal torus
Age of Glaciers
altered migration routes
Sexual division of labor.
Men hunt but often bring home nothing, women feed by gathering plant foods.
thus women take care of kids while men hunt: they educate and socialize the young. Women provide and socialize = greater importance.
tools of stone.
- core tools
sharp on one end, blunt on the other
worked on both sides
in bones from tools.
clasically european phenomenon
late surviving: 130-80 thousand years ago
archaic humans: long/low skull, no forehead.
avg. brain bigger than ours
- La Chapelle
- Mid-facial projection
- barrel chest
- short distal limb segments
- Mousterian culture
discovered a skeleton and described and interpreted it in a very non-scientific way.
said Not related to modern humans.
almost like a beak, a big broad nose.
Stocky, powerfully built
elbow to wrist, knee to ankle
char. of neandertals
volume ratio- key ratio wether body is for cold or heat
Bergman and allen's rules
Neandertals are short and stocky, living in glacial conditions
- Levallois flake
- prepared core
- flake tools
comes off prepared core, shows real sophistication in tool makers' mind
if done right, can get mult. flakes from a single core.
sharp edges all the way around
more cutting edge per unit of stone that you started with.
making a composite tool
Stone tipped point on wood shaft- spear
with flowers/deer antlers
Replacement (eve) model
Multiregional Evolution model
mtDNA- diff in us and neans.
recent, out of africa.
homo sapien evolved recently in africa, new species spread out, replaced all archaic hominids they encountered including neandertals.
Neandertals diff species than us: homo neandertalensis
earlierst out of africa, recent everywhere.
modern humans are end product of long evo. continuum. living old world human populations are in part descended from their archaic predecessors including neandertals.
subspecies diff. we are homo sapian sapians. they are homo sapien neandertalensis.
3rd molar agenesis
char. of modern homo sapians
char. of modern homo sapiens
spear thrower, longer shaft of wood with notch, allows distance.
- flake tools
- bone, antler
- sewing needles
- cave art
twice as tall as it is wide.
more cutting edge.
part of upper paleolithic
making own clothes
Casco alta mira
An individuals attempt to attain/regain homeostasis.
helps us understand how we vary
having body a equilibrium
short term adaption
tolerances of human body
long term adaptation
as long as it isn't life threatening.
there is a decrease in psychological response and behavioral response to a stimulus after repeated exposure to that stimulus over a duration of time.
our basis of survival depends on
(coat, heater, etc.)
77-80 degrees farenheit. unclothed at this temp = thermal homeostasis.
heat always flows from hotter to cooler surfaces. if skin warmer than surrounding area, goes to air and lose heat.
wind. convective heat loss, movement of air accelerates radiation.
opening veins to return blood to heart by shallow pathway near skin surface
increasing gradient of skin temp and cool surrounding area.
evaporation is the key in sweating
we have mroe sweat glands than any other animal
- lewis hunting waves
- countercurrent exchange
- basal metabolic rate
- voluntary exercise
lewis hunting waves
constrict shallow network of veins, return blood to heart through deep veins, reduces gradient of temp thus less radiation.
dangerous if skin goes below 32. frostbite - freezing of skin
alternating waves of vasodiolation and vasoconstriction.
allows it to open up and prevent freezing of skin
exchange of heat. arteries are deep that seend blood out in deep veins on top of arteries. arteries and veins take blood in and out one on top of each other.
arteries send out from and veins take blood to the heart. arteries is hot blood, heat is exchanged, thus don't lose heat
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
sum total of all body processes that convert nutrients into energy. increase metabolism you produce heat
amount of energy expended.
if energy lost, less heat.
very inefficient. cannot by conscious control increase heat production.
involuntary muscular contraction. (more efficient and does the job)
have no cultural adaptations to cold stress,
sleep on ground. BMR's went down and vasoconstriction to where skin temp down to air temp.
don't have to shiver, not wasting calories, no frost bite bc upper 30's.
food shortages in winter leave low calorie intake so they can't waste calories at night shivering.
severe chronic cold stress
significant cultural adaptation: clothing (caribou/reindeer)
housing (made of ice) 32 inside an igloo.
deal with stress thru exquisite carnivorous diet:
mostly protein. provides high metabolism. they dump the heat out of their skin: hands/face/feet. prevents frostbite.
- increase blood solids
- increase heart rate
- englarged lungs/ches
- right ventricular hypertrophy
- pulmonary blood pressure
- delayed maturation
increase blood solids
increase heart rate
start breathing faster and deeper
open up more blood vessels
like a bad flu, avoid by getting to high altitude slowly and drink a lot fluid
lungs' fluid builds up,
save person by getting the to sea level.
right ventricular hypertrophy
pulmonary blood pressure
grow bc when they are little they have to breath.
greater lung volume take in more air per breath
right size is englarged, it pumps blood to the body.
2x more than reg.
increased to get more blood per beat of heart to lung.
muscular/sexual systems delayed too.
delayed beginning of growth spurt
- lactose intolerance
- novel environments
Pastoralism: populations that have cows/sheep/goats enhanced ability to digest milk
- salt and hyper tension
- sugar and diabetes
inability to produce insulin to metabolize sugar.
type I - from childhood. 10% of people. inability to produce insulin
Type II - 90% body ignores insulin to store sugars build up.
good: excess energy= reproduce better and babies grow quicker bc less birth interval.
bad:33% rise in cholesterol, higher insulin levels.
covers nucleus of keratinocytes. (DNA protected)
bigger in dark skin populations.
travels through blood.
Folic acid transform into folate. UVR destroys folate
happens when not enough vit. D
accentuated recognition of differences of people. travel by boat from europe to wherever. not intermediate points, drastic differences.
devised modern racial categories (Caucasian, etc.). skin color/geography were the basis
professor/clergyman had experience in America others did not. had day to day contact with slaves/native americans
Physician from Philadelphia, looked at skulls (size/shape)
wrote crania americana
and crania aegyptiaca
believed in young earth
Crania Aegyptiaca 1844
compared and saw differences. all created spearately not enough time to come from single pair
father of french physical anthropology
believed races created separately and were distinct.
tried to define race as breeding populations that differ from others in one or more genetic traits
problem there would be 1000's
Geographic race: continents
Local race: tribes
micro race: smaller subsets
problem is that it says nothing about relationships.
idea of race developed in anti-evolutionary time.
way creation percieved
great chain of being - hierarchy - immutable - way organized
everything had a type.
people of race are different and less of humans. exploit them.
names used to dehumanize people.
differences between groups
no consensus in definition of race in biology
skin color/asian eyes are not unique to just one race. they are in a bunch of races.
Jensen and shockley
herrenstein and murray; rushton
difference in 15pt IQ difference says african americans are mentally inferior.
skin color - varies by latitude, darkens in lower and lighter higher
94% of traits were present in each of 7 races, genetic variation of 6% can be described by diffs.
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