1. First Century Challenges Notes: Haziminians- High priests & kings, but the weren’t from the right family, (were not from the House of David). If not for the Haziminians, the temple would be dedicated to Zeus! Hanukkah- Made it possible for different types of Jews to continue. This festival makes Christianity possible. These events occur long before Jesus, so there is no correlation between Hanukkah and Christmas. Marks the turning point in history in the direction of where Judaism is going. Now we hear about internal struggles within Judaism. There are no more external struggles since the battle for ethical monotheism has won. -One debate is over the control of the Temple of Jerusalem-who is going to be the high priest? Who is going to write the Torah? Dead Sea Scrolls- The oldest copy of the Tanakh and other writings. They found the scrolls near Kumron. Dead Sea Sect saw them in the Tanakh. Essenes War Scroll- The sons of light will defeat the sons of darkness (everyone they hate). They want to break away from Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple themselves. Temple Mt- Herod the Great, half Jewish king. Had issues with the high priests, broke away from Jerusalem. Helped with the second Temple, built with from 538-515BC. He built the lower part of the Western Wall. Pharisees & Saducees- Represent different economic classes of Jews with different readings of the Torah. Saducees were stricter than the Pharisees, a lot of High Priests were Saducees. Both remained in Jerusalem. Pharisees became hypocritical-some became Christians. They believed that people are supposed to act like priests, and commoners have to imitate priests of the Temple. Pharisees also had ideas of afterlife. Hillel & Sham- They were colleagues during Herod. They were noteworthy teachers. Pharisees-rewards & punishments-If you drown someone you will be drowned. Love everyone and introduce him or her to the torah. Hillel brings others to Judaism, not by going around and converting people. But by others recognizing the one God simply through Jews being Jews. Dead Sea Sect saw the prophets as referring to them. The Pharisees saw the text as being handed down by ancestors. Hillel studied the text thoroughly and squeezed it to make it work for any period of time. Rule- Every 7th year if a poor person has not paid his debt, it was to be forgiven and forgotten forever. Deuteronomy 15- Concern for the destitute. If you were THAT poor fellow man should overlook the debt. If you turn the debt to a court, the money goes to the court, then it would be collected after that year. First Century Palestine Hillel- The Golden Rule. He looks at a verse and applies it to daily life. Has meaning for the day debts with Sabbatical year. He started the practice of studying a verse and fitting it into the day. Rabbis study and show continuing relevance. He was influenced by the Pharisees. Sicarri- Opposed Roman rule. The slogan was, “No Lord but God”-did not want human rule. Sicarri means daggers. They wanted a theocracy through the rule of the High Priests. Zealots- Mainstream group. Lots of diff. sects, revolutionaries, wonder workers. Galalie-home of Jesus. Many take on the same religion in the 1st century, there is a lot of unsettlement and disunity. 66- Jews revolted, the revolutionaries start it, but most Jews join in the revolt against the Romans. The second temple is destroyed. Dead Sea Sect- Think everything’s going to work out. The Romans destroyed their base in 67. Did not find the book of Esther. 73- Masach hold out for 3 years against the Romans, they would rather take their own lives then be in control by the Romans. Masadas were extremists, the Sicarri was there, who were much more extreme. This was the last stand against the Romans, w/o this we wouldn’t have Judaism today!!! 132 AD- Wanted to rebuild the second temple, Bar Kokhba became King of the House of David, he was called “The Messiah”. The Saducees are gone after the Temple is destroyed. The Pharisees spoke of the Torah as related to the home not just the Temple. Always spoke of everyday life. Don’t know what happened to the Pharisees, maybe taken over by the Rabbis. Only way Judaism survived was through the Rabbis- They showed that the Torah was a living document that related to every day. The early Christians survive- -Jesus was a Jew. -He states the Golden Rule of Hillel. -Talked like a Jew. Shabberai Zevi-Thought he was the Messiah in the 17th century; he gets captured then converts to Islam instead of getting killed. Some Messiah. Lubavitcher Rebbe- He influenced the Chabad movement (Hasidim). Thought he was the Messiah. Jews never gave up hope of messiah. Rabbi Akiva- One of the most revered Rabbi’s in history. Jesus makes pilgrimages to the Temple. Offers sacrifices, his teaching focuses on Jews, puts fellow Jews first. Sees himself as a teacher to fellow Jews. Judaism & Christianity go their separate ways. Jesus was a servant to the circumcised & Paul was a servant to the uncircumcised-he teaches the teachings of Jesus to the non Jews. Judaism & Christianity go their Separate Ways Have to realize that Jesus was a Jew!!!!! Early Christians went to the same places of worship that Jesus did. If you’re Jewish you still believe there is a Messiah. Jesus goes into a bath under John’s leadership-baptism, born again. Jesus caused a commotion at the Temple Mt, making a scene to point to the future & talk about a new world that was coming. Romans do away with Jesus. How Jewish was Jesus? -Romans crucified “The King of the Jews” -Romans were pagans. -Crucifixion was a warning-stop defending your Temple in Jerusalem. -Jesus lives & dies as a Jew, so how do we get to Christianity? Paul was a Pharisee and an opponent of Jesus. He is transformed by a vision he had, which said that circumcision and the rest of the “law” is no longer necessary. Gentiles could become Christians by accepting the teachings of Jesus w/o converting to Judaism. A compromise allows Paul to continue teaching the Gentiles. Abraham did not follow the practices of Judaism First church (earliest church). Jews believe the teaching of Jews is for Jews. Jews thought that Bar Kokhba was the messiah, especially Rabbi Akiba. Second revolt breaks out, Christianity becomes dependent on the conversion of Gentiles. Constantine’s Death-Empire becomes Christian, Jews become the oddball. It’s not about being the Messiah it’s about following the Jewish way of life. Messiah Expectations Jewish- Messiah means “appointed one” refers to the King of Israel and High Priest. Christians saw Jesus as being resurrected as pivotal. Important Differences between Judaism and Christianity Christian-What should I believe leads man to appropriate action. Judaism- What should I do, what they do illuminates the faith. The differences in Christianity and Judaism is in the approach. Christianity- Other worldly, heaven & hell. Judaism- This worldly, no heaven and hell, not in the Torah. All Jews have to do is keep the covenant, everything else will fall into place. 2. The Mishnah & Talmud Pharisees- Promoted tradition & covenant. As time goes on, Rabbis emerge with more coherent program developed by the Pharisees. Yohanan Ben Zakkai: Leaves city and goes to Jabneh to continue teaching-becomes Mishnah-has a plan for the future, doesn’t turn himself over to the Romans. Jabneh-The Sectarian ways are of the past, need to follow the ways of the future, study the Torah inside and out like Hillel. Pre 70- The Temple is the focus of Jewish life. After 70- Concentrate on other aspects of the Torah. Passover now takes place in the home.-no sacrifice needed-home replaces temple. ^ All the work of the Rabbis. Six Orders [Tractates] of the Mishnah Seeds Blessing, agricultural concerns All land belongs to God so pray before and after you eat. Deals with 7th sabbatical year, parts with poor & priests. Festivals Sabbath, Passover, Sabbath is the holiest day of Jewish life Passover you remember that God is the liberator Women Marriage & divorce Damages, Civil Law Property laws, damages, “ethics of the fathers” How you deal with man reflects relationships with God. Holy Things Sacrifices, Temple matters Purities Purification rituals Distinguishes between regular things and special ones Sexual relations- have to take a ritual bath, located in homes. Certain types of vessels used for eating. Mishnah becomes the repetition of the oral teaching. Talmud is the written. Leaves many things unanswered!! Two types of Talmuds- Iraq (well known) – Babylonian Talmud, more complete Israel (less known) – written by 2 types of rabbis. Babylonian Talmud The Mishnah- Created by Rabbis 70-200 From when is the Shema read in the evening? Know that it is popular and most people know it. Refers to time in temple. Until Midnight-Sages, usually follow Sages. The Shema- -Only 1 God, Gemara connects dots with written torah. -There is an evening and a morning Shema. -Evening begins the day in Judaism. Gemara + Mishnah (oral torah revealed @ Sinai) = Talmud. Talmuds- bring their logic into understanding the Jewish way of life. Rabbis are looking back into their traditions to see if their current understanding fits with the Torah, they don’t interpret they reveal>see how much torah continues to be relevant to our own time. Once the Torah was given, the Rabbis job was to constantly struggle to understand it. Midrash- Systematically uncover its meaning. The Halakhic Midrash: -If you murder man, you have dishonored me. Look at the dichotomy between the commandments, need to do understand what the Rabbis were doing. Judaism evolved, not the same as the old testament. Kadosh- 7th day is holy. 3. Shabbat 7th day-Can’t go out and collect manna on the 7th day, can’t cook food, don’t leave your house. “Remember the 7th day and keep it holy”. Give slaves and animals a rest, a sign that God has made Israel holy; cease labor, no buying and selling. Observe the Sabbath Day and keep it holy. Day of creation and remembering the Exodus from Egypt-Sabbath is NOT just about remembering creation, others still work, God made it possible for you to live this life, no more Egypt as slaves. Doesn’t say anything about no driving, electricity, how did we get where we are today? ORAL TRADITION. 39 activities prohibited on the Sabbath. They connect the oral torah to the written torah. 1st 11-preparation of food 2nd 13- preparation of clothes 3rd 9- preparation of hides 4th 5-construction Shabbat is a “Day of Delight” -Elimination of labor creates an environment of rest, spiritual (Menuhah) called by Rabbis. What’s the difference between remembering Shabbat and observing it? Said in different texts. To figure out the difference call upon the Midrash. Any explanation of the text is Midrash. Remembering can only be done through observing!!! You can’t just sit in your room and “remember”, remembering is only recognized through actions. Celebrating Shabbat – living in the Image of God, he worked for 6 days rested on the 7th. –recognies The rest of the week is created for Shabbat, you are mentally prepared for it, rhythm of the week. Observant Jew-prepares in advance, 18 min. before sunset on Friday, horn signifies Shabbat. Family is essential to the observance of Shabbat. Why can we have sex on the Sabbath if we are creating? FALSE ASSUMPTION: Think that we can’t do what God did on the Sabbath. Creation that is prohibited on the Sabbath is God’s rule, but this doesn’t apply to men. Sabbath is about imitating God, but not about prohibiting his activities, just the Mishkan’s. Not supposed to work like they did in the wilderness but they can do God’s work. They cannot do the work that went into the building of the Mishkan, 39 things. What is prohibited on the Sabbath goes with the 39 labors of the Mishkan. Sexual relations had nothing to do with Mishkan! Mishkan-Temple-Where man reaches out to God. Earth is God’s place to reach out to man. Earth is God’s Mishkan. Parallel: God builds earth-his sanctuary- rested on the 7th day. Man builds Mishkan-his sanctuary- rested on the 7th day. God stops doing what HE created (no creation) Man stops doing what HE created (no 39 labors) Because they are imitating God on human terms, they are living in his image and both reaching out to one another. Story about Rabbi Eliezer: -Follow the majority over a heavenly voice!!! This was said at the covenant in Sinai. Devotion to God means struggle with Torah. “Torah is not in heaven!” Labor – 39 labors of building mishkan, don’t do this on.