Political Science 452—Spring 2009 Final Exam Review Sheet Ethiopia and the Sudan—How did Mengistu attempt to hide evidence of the 1984 famine? Why was the West slow to respond? What compounded the severity of the famine? What were the primary reasons for conflict in the Sudan? What were the causes of conflict in Chad? Where is the Aozou Strip? What prompted General Numieri to go back on his early pledge of more autonomy for Southern Sudan? What was the US attitude toward Numieri? Darfur Now—What were the guiding reasons for Adam Sterling’s interest in Darfur? What is Luis Moreno-Ocampo’s motivation for pursuing war criminals? What American politicians are featured in the documentary? What countries do Cheadle and Clooney use their star power to lobby? What are the strategies of the janjaweed and SLM in Darfur? Who is Ahmed Harun? Why is China so important to reaching a peace agreement in Darfur? The Role of Women in African Politics—In what ways did women specifically contribute to pre-colonial African nations? How did colonialism change the political and economic power balance between men and women? What is the significance of Bridewealth historically? Today? How do men and women prioritize differently when faced with scarce family resources? What is the discrepancy between the education of girls and boys in school in Africa? Who is Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf? The African Economy—What was the long term effect of slavery on Africa? What methods did colonial powers use to make their colonies self-sufficient? What was the economic consequence of African governments spending lots of money to finance industrialization? How were the OPEC Oil Embargo and 1972 Sahel Drought pivotal to Africa’s economy? Why did African states take over private industries? What is NEPAD? What is the Peer Review Mechanism? To whom is most of Africa’s debt owed? What is the economic cost of deforestation? The Lost Decade—Why was the 1980s the Lost Decade? What were the IMF Policy Prescriptions for African states? Who benefited from the 1990s sell-off of state-owned industry? Population Growth and Urbanization—Why is Africa urbanizing faster than any other continent? What were pre-colonial limits on population growth? Why did colonialism encourage large families? What factors today contributed to the desire to have more children? AIDS in Africa—Where were the first large-scale outbreaks of AIDS in Africa? What was the initial response of most African leaders to the pandemic? Where was AIDS addressed early on? What strategies were used to control AIDS effectively? What practices encourage the spread of AIDS in Africa? What has been the West’s response to the spread of AIDS? Population, Urbanization, and AIDS—Why is Urbanization in Africa unique? Why was there not early population pressure in Africa? What were Pre-colonial Limits on Population Growth? Why do people have large families today? Why is the secret to lowering population growth? Who is limiting Family Planning Education? Why are wages in African cities so low? What is the problem in getting people to use condoms? What are habits that encourage the spread of AIDS? Where are there bright spots in the war on AIDS? The African Environment—What type of natural disasters largely do not effect Africa? What is the main cause of deforestation? What is the long term consequence of chopping down tropical forests especially? What are Structural Adjustment Programs? Where is desertification the worst? What countries make up the Sahel? What is the biggest cause of soil erosion? What are the specific problems with Pesticides, Fertilizers, and Toxic Waste dumping? What was significant about the 2002 Summit on Sustainable Development? What are the main reasons for wildlife destruction in Africa? Black Gold: Oil in Africa—What is the Clark Amendment? What was the paradox of Angolan oil--who protected it, who attacked it? What international powers and specific resources supported each side in the Angolan War? How were the elections in Angola conducted differently than those in Namibia and Cambodia? What were the signs that Jonas Savimbi was a brutal man? What were the chief educational priorities of the Angolan government? What is the issue over transparency in the oil sector in many African states? Spotlight on South Africa—What is CODESA? What was the purpose of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission? What were the accomplishments and failures of Nelson Mandela’s time as president? What were some of the main contributing factors to the surge of crime in the 1990s in South Africa? What role did blacks have in the apartheid-era economy? Who was Steve Biko? Why were the Bantustans nonsensical? How did South Africa work to expand the political system in the early 1980s? What effects did international sanctions have on the citizens of apartheid-era South Africa? Tsotsi—What factors shaped Tsotsi’s transformation? How is South African society portrayed? What are the different reasons that Tsotsi’s gangmates turned to crime? The divide in the movie is not between blacks and whites, but between ____ and ___. In what roles are non-white South Africans portrayed? How do the handicapped man (Morris) and young mother (Miriam) alter Tsotsi’s thinking? The Struggle for Democracy—Who is Omar Bongo? How did people vote in Kenya under Daniel arap Moi? What African leader’s ouster started the spread of democracy in Africa after the fall of the Soviet Union? How did Mobutu have to change tactics to stay in power? Who was Sani Abacha? How was Kenneth Kaunda a model for other former autocrats in Africa? Somewhere over the Rainbow—How is South Africa two separate countries? What huge dilemma did Nelson Mandela face while in power? What was the role of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission? Who is the most upwardly mobile group in South Africa? What were the major flaws in priorities of Mandela and Thabo Mbeki? In what ways did Mbeki and Mandela differ? Black Hawk Down—What was unique about Somalia at independence? What do the five stars on the Somali flag stand for? How was the 1977 war between Somalia and Ethiopia unique? What problems plagued the UN/US intervention in Somalia? What hamstrung US operations in Somalia? The Graves Are Not Yet Full—Why was Rwanda an African Success Story before the genocide? What had cultivated the Hutu-Tutsi rivalry? What forces punished the Rwandan economy in the 1980s? What is the Fashoda Syndrome? What were the two principle sparks for the killing in Rwanda? How did the UN and USA respond to the gathering genocidal threat? What roles did the Rwandan Patriotic Front, the French government, and the Roman Catholic Church play in how the conflict played out? Where Vultures Fly—How did Mobutu’s own policies prove to be his undoing? Who supported Laurent Kabila’s efforts to take down Mobutu? How did Kabila then turn on his old allies? What is coltan? Why is the War in the Congo known as Africa’s World War? In the Name of the Prophet—Who appointed the imams in Algeria? Who were the Berbers? What happened during the 1992 Algerian elections? What restrictions were put in place by General Bashir in Sudan? What were the sources of tension between Northern and Southern Sudanese? What role did Osama bin Laden play in Sudan in the 1990s? What turned Sudan away from overt support for terrorist groups? What were the disparate goals of the two factions of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army? Who were the outside sponsors of the Lord’s Resistance Army? What role does oil play in the conflicts in Sudan? Blood Diamonds—What is the True Whig Party? How did the Americo-Liberians entrench their rule? What were the three bedrocks of the Liberian economy? What type of leader was Samuel Doe? What made Liberia an important ally of the USA? How did Charles Taylor develop Small Boys Units? Why were they considered effective? What role did ECOMOG play? What inspired the Revolutionary United Front? What is Executive Outcomes? What did the Kimberley Process seek to do? A Degree in Violence—What were Robert Mugabe’s initial reasons for cultivating white allies? How was land redistribution initially conducted in Zimbabwe? What was the result of Mugabe’s crackdown in Matabeleland? What is the Curse of Education? Additional updates provided by Amber. African International Relations—What tied African states closely to their former colonial powers? How specifically does France keep former colonies close? Why did the Cold War change African IR? What motivates China’s involvement in Africa? Canada? AGOA, OAU Charter, UAM, SADC, ECCAS What encourages the proliferation of regional organizations in Africa? What role does the UN play in Africa? What types of work do NGOs do? What are some criticisms of their activities? CARE, Amnesty International, Medicins sans Frontieres, ICRC. The USA and Africa—What roles does Oil, the War on Terror, and the AIDS crisis play in American relations with Africa? What groups within American civil society are crucial in shaping relations with Africa? What is the African Renaissance? How did Bill Clinton show his support of US-friendly African leaders? What are the major drivers of Afro-pessimism? What is the Millennium Challenge Account?