Information Processing An approach to problem-solving (other approaches: Behaviorist, Gestalt) A state is a particular configuration of a problem An operator: a path that moves you from one state to another Three general cases of problems to consider: 1. Very familiar problem 2. Very little relevant knowledge 3. Some relevant knowledge In general, some knowledge helps the problem-solving process. However, when we know little about the problem, we use four types of heuristics: 1. Brute force search 2. Hill climbing 3. Working backwards 4. Means ends analysis brute force search is the technique by which one tries every possible scenario sequentially; it involves very little thought process, but is not useful for large data sets hill climbing is looking ahead and selecting an operator based on its ability to bring you closer to your goal; not useful when the only way to a solution is by going backwards first working backwards is the process of beginning at the goal and trying to find a way back to the initial state means ends analysis is the process of comparing the current state to the goal state and evaluating the difference; allows you to set sub-goals, which is important for more complex problems Heuristics Used in Decision-Making Four main heuristics for decision-making: 1. Representativeness 2. Availability 3. Anchoring and adjustment 4. Simulation 1. Downhill simulation 2. Horizontal simulation 3. Uphill simulation Reasoning Syllogisms, Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Syllogisms are three statements that describe a situation/phenomenon; two premises followed by a conclusion Four common syllogism errors: 1. Conversion errors 2. Conversational implicature 3. Atmosphere 4. Belief bias Use of analogies is a good way to foster good understanding of a subject; analogies are an example of inductive reasoning. Steps to using analogies: 1. Retrieval - ideally problem and analogy have structural similarity 2. Mapping - matching the new situation to the source 3. Extension - use source and mapping to draw new conclusions
Want to see the other 2 page(s) in Study Points for Test 3?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!