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Study Questions (Answers not Provided)
Study Questions (Answers not Provided)
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What is the difference between a ribose and deoxyribose sugar?
What are three differences between RNA and DNA?
What is the link between sugars in the DNA or RNA backbone called?
What is the directionality of the nucleotides?
How many nucleotides per turn of DNA helix?
Amino acids are linked by what type of bond?
How many amino acids are there?
Subunits are linked into macromolecules by what type of bond?
Macromolecules are linked into macromolecular complexes by what type of bond?
What is a chromatid?
Draw a nucleosome.
Why would you add salt to a 30nm fiber experimentally?
Name two types of epigenetic control of the genome.
What are HAT and HDAC?
What is the importance of having both heterochromatin and euchromatin?
What is the histone code?
What is the purpose of the Chromatin Remodeling Complexes?
In what phase of the cell cycle does DNA synthesis occur?
How are parental histone modification marks transferred to daughter cells?
Is DNA replication identical? Why or why not?
Name three proteins involved in DNA synthesis and their functions.
Draw a DNA replication fork with directionality indicated.
Why is DNA replication semiconservative?
Why is DNA replication bidirectional?
Define leading strand and lagging strand.
Describe an experiment showing that replication origins are necessary for DNA synthesis.
Why does the DNA have Okazaki fragments during replication?
How does a microarray detect replication origins?
What is an RNA primer and why is it necessary?
What is the function of DNA ligase? Why can?t the DNA polymerase do that job?
Why is single-stranded DNA binding protein important?
How does the DNA replication machinery deal with the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes?
What is the genetic basis for Huntington?s Disease? How does this relate to DNA replication and repair?
What are two sources of DNA damage?
What are the four steps of DNA repair?
Why are nicks in the damaged strand important?
What causes a thymine dimer and what fixes it?
What is the cause of Xeroderma pigmentosum?
What are two ways to repair double strand breaks?
What problems can result from double strand break repair?
Name 4 ways a cell can regulate gene expression.
How was genome equivalence demonstrated?
What are the exceptions to the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?
Is RNA always single stranded?
What are the three steps of prokaryotic transcription?
Describe the process of repression of a gene.
Describe the process of activation of a gene.
Give an example of balancing activation and repression of a gene.
Name three types of eukaryotic RNAs.
Name the different RNAs that the three eukaryotic RNA polymerases transcribe.
Where are these RNAs made?
What are the roles of the proximal promoter and distal enhancer?
What is the purpose of the hox genes?
Why might two same activation domains not have the same function?
Name the 4 general categories of molecules required for the initiation of RNA polymerase II transcription.
Make a table detailing the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription.
How do you get multiple cell types from one precursor cell?
What does ?necessary and sufficient? mean?
Why is it possible for a prokaryote to translate mRNA co-transcriptionally?
Describe prokaryotic mRNA processing.
What is the purpose of the 5? cap and the poly-A tail?
Describe how introns are removed.
How does alternative splicing allow for multiple forms of a protein from one gene?
Why are three reading frames possible from each RNA strand?
Describe the steps of charging the tRNA with its amino acid.
What is the wobble position?
What is an initiation site?
What are the start and stop signals in the mRNA?
Describe a ribosome.
Detail the steps in initiation, elongation and termination.
Why would you want more than 1 ribosome translating at once?
What are the 5 post-translational modifications of proteins that we know about?
What are the purposes of these modifications?
What are two ways to silence genes post-transcriptionally?
What are the Drosha and Dicer complexes?
What does the RISC complex do?
?Bonus? Question: who was the Brown alum who won the Nobel Prize in 2006? What did he discover?
What are the differences between an endosome, a lysosome and a peroxisome?
What are three ways that proteins are transported?
How does a cell know where to send or direct proteins?
What is the function of the nuclear lamina?
How do proteins leave the ER?
Draw the process of nuclear transport
Follow a protein from the cytosol to the interior of a mitochondrion.
Describe the trip of a protein from the pool of ribosomal subunits to the ER lumen.
Why is some ER called rough?
How do some proteins become transmembrane proteins?
How do proteins travel from the ER to the Golgi and beyond?
What proteins help form vesicles?
What are SNAREs?
What is a major modification done in the ER?
What happens to proteins that have misfolded?
Describe how proteins are moved through the Golgi.
Draw the Golgi and label the sections with the modifications done in each section.
What is the process of exocytosis?
What are the differenes between phagocytosis and pinocytosis?
Why does the lysosomal pH have to be low?
How do pathogens hijack cellular endocytic pathways?
Describe the three stages of cellular metabolism.
How is glycolysis initiated?
What is the net gain of glycolysis?
How is ATP generated by fermentation?
Why use fermentation?
What key molecule helps break down pyruvate and fatty acids?
What are porins?
What is the process that breaks down Acetyl CoA?
How are glycolysis and the citric acid cycle linked?
Describe chemiosmosis and its function in phosphorylating ADP to ATP.
What is the purpose of the electron transport chain?
What are the start and finish products of the electron transport chain?
Draw the chain in the mitochondrial membrane.
What are two mobile electron carriers?
What are three conformations of a protein pump?
Why is a proton gradient important?
Draw ATP synthesis and hydrolysis (figure 14-13 in your book)
What is one reason why the IMM is impermeable to protons?
What are liposomes and how do they generate ATP?
Draw the bacterial flagellar motor.
What does the mitochondrial DNA code for?
How do proteins get imported into the mitochondria?
Name 5 proteins required for protein import.
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