Study Questions for Last Psychology exam Chapter 12: 3. What are six criteria that are suggestive of psychological disorders? 1. They are unusual 2. They suggest faulty perception or interpretation of reality 3. They suggest severe personal distress 4. They are self defeating 5. They are dangerous 6. The individual’s behavior is socially unacceptable. 4. Why is classification important? Classification is at the heart of science. Without classifying psychological disorders, investigators would not be able to communicate with each other and scientific progress would come to a standstill. 5. What is the classification system of the DSM-IV-TR? It groups disorders on the basis of observable behaviors or symptoms. 9. What are the five types of personality disorders? 1. Paranoid 2. Schizotypal 3. Schizoid 4. Antisocial 5. Avoidant 10. How do different psychology theories explain different anxiety disorders? Psychological theories- Psychodynamic-Phobias come from childhood GAD – persistent difficulty in repressing primitive impulses Obsessions-leakage of unconscious impulses Compulsions-acts that allow people to keep such impulses partly repressed. Learning Theorists-Phobias-conditioned fears acquired in childhood Cognitive Theorists- Anxiety- maintained by thinking that one is in a terrible situation and helpless to change it. Biological Theories- Anxiety disorders run in families. Anxiety disorders may reflect the interaction of biological and psychological factors. In panic disorder, biological imbalances may trigger attacks. 11. What are three types of dissociative disorders? 1. Dissociative Amnesia 2. Dissociative Fugue 3. Dissociative Identity Disorder 12. How do different theories explain dissociative disorders? Psychodynamic-People with dissociative disorders use massive repression to prevent them from recognizing improper impulses or remembering ugly events. Learning theorists- people with dissociative disorders have learned not to think about bad memories or disturbing impulses in order to avoid feelings of anxiety, guilt, and shame. Both theorists suggest that dissociative disorders help people keep disturbing memories or ideas out of mind. 13. Why is there some skepticism as to whether dissociative disorders really exist? Because there were around 50 cases known before the public learned about “Sybil”. By the 1990’s there were 20,000 cases. Psychologists often diagnose people as dissociative disorder that are faking. 14. What are some examples of conversion disorders? Losing vision at night or paralysis in the legs, and being indifferent about it. No medical reason for theses abnormalities. Also known as “la belle indifference”. 15. How do psychologists explain conversion disorders? Psychodynamic- the symptoms protect the individual from feelings of guilt or shame or from another source of stress. 16. What are the differences between feeling depressed and major depressive disorder? Feeling depressed is feeling sad, “down in the dumps”. Major depressive disorder is a serious to severe depressive disorder in which the person may show loss of appetite, psychomotor retardation, and impaired reality testing. 17. What are some reasons psychologists think women seem more likely to be diagnosed with depression? Women have a greater tendency to ruminate about stresses and other negative events. Also, hormonal changes during adolescence, the menstrual cycle, and childbirth may contribute to depression. 22. How do different attributional styles relate to depression? Internal-self blame External- places blame elsewhere Stable- suggests a problem that cannot be changed. “It’s my personality” Unstable- Suggests a temporary condition. “It was because I had a head cold.” 23. Why might too much self-blame make us physically sick? Because self blame for negative events is connected with poorer functioning of the immune system. 24. What biological factors appear related to depression? Depression is related to neuroticism which is heritable. Genetics plays a role in the inheritance of major depression and bipolar disorder. 27. What are some problems schizophrenics have? They have problems in memory and attention and communication. They also tend to have delusions. Delusions- false, persistent beliefs that are unsubstantiated by sensory or objective evidence. 28. What are some characteristics of paranoid, disorganized, and catatonic schizophrenics? Paranoid- Delusions of persecution, jealousy, and vivid hallucinations Disorganized- Disorganized delusions and vivid hallucinations Catatonic- characterized by striking motor impairment. Slowing of activity into a stupor. 29. What are the psychodynamic, learning theory, parenting, and social/cultural factor explanations for schizophrenia? Psychodynamic- occurs because the ego is overwhelmed by sexual or aggressive impulses from the id. The impulses threaten the ego and cause inner conflict. Learning theory- people more likely to engage in schizophrenic behavior when it is more likely to be reinforced than normal behavior. Parenting- connected with the development of schizophrenia. Many people who are reared in socially punitive settings are immune to the extinction of socially appropriate behavior. Social/Cultural-Schizophrenia twice as high in the lowest socioeconomic class. Poor quality housing contributes to psychological disorders. 31. What are some biological risk factors for schizophrenia? Heredity, complications during pregnancy and birth, and birth during winters. 32. What are some other factors besides heredity that seem to make people susceptible to schizophrenia? Complications during pregnancy such as an illness, Poor maternal nutrition, Alcohol abuse, and problems in the nervous system. 33. How does the dopamine theory seek to explain schizophrenia? According to the theory, people with schizophrenia overutilize dopamine although they may not produce more of it. Research shows that people with schizophrenia have more dopamine stored at their synapses and also a larger number of dopamine receptors. 36. What are the similarities and differences between the personality disorders? Paranoid Personality- a personality disorder characterized by persistent suspiciousness but not involving the disorganization of paranoid schizophrenia. Schizotypal Personality- a personality disorder characterized by oddities of thought and behavior but not involving bizarre psychotic behaviors. Schizoid Personality- a personality disorder characterized by social withdrawal. Borderline personality- a personality disorder characterized by instability in relationships, self-image, mood, and lack of impulse control. Antisocial Personality- The diagnosis given a person who is in frequent conflict with society, yet who is undeterred by punishment and experiences little or no guilt or anxiety. Avoidant Personality- a personality disorder in which the person is unwilling to enter relationships without assurance of acceptance because of fears of rejection and criticism. 37. How do psychodynamic and learning theorists explain personality disorders? Psychodynamic- relies on the Oedipus complex and says that faulty resolution may result in a lack of guilt in the subject and this can cause Oedipal problems. Learning- childhood experiences can contribute to maladaptive ways of relating to other in adulthood. 41. What are exit life events and their relationship to suicide? Exit life events are events that entail the loss of social support, as in the death of a parent or friend, divorce, or a family member’s leaving home. 43. What are three facts about suicide? 3rd leading cause of death among young people ages 15-24 Suicide more common in college students Older people are more likely to commit suicide. 46. What are some myths about suicide? People who threaten suicide just want attention. Those who are serious just do it. People who consider suicide are “insane” 47. What are some common warning signs for suicide? Changes in eating and sleeping patterns. Giving away prized possessions. Withdrawal from social relationships. Talking or writing about death or dying. Abuse of drugs or alcohol. An attempted suicide. Availability of a handgun.