Study Questions for Last Psychology exam Chapter 13 1. What are the four essentials of psychotherapy? 1. Systematic interaction 2. Psychological Principles 3. Thoughts, Feelings, behavior 4. Psychological disorders, adjustment problems, and personal growth 2. How was treatment of psychological problems changed through history? Asylums were formed from the European moasteries and then Mental hospitals came along in America and replaced the asylums. 3. Who was Dorthea Dix? Woman who helped create a decent mental hospital system and she fought for the welfare of people with psychological disorders. 5. According to Freud, what happens to internal conflicts? It involves the shifting of psychic, or libidinal, energy among the three psychic structures—the id, ego, and superego. These shifts of psychic energy determine our behavior. 6. What does Freud’s psychodynamic therapy aim to modify? The flow of energy among structures largely to bulwark the ego against the torrents of energy loosed by the id and the superego. 7. What are the goals of psychoanalysis? It aims to provide insight to the conflicts that are presumed to lie at the roots of a person’s problems. It also aims to help the client express feelings and urges that have been repressed. 9. Why is transference considered a key aspect of psychoanalysis? Transference is responding to one person in a way that is similar to the way one responded to another person in childhood. 10. What did Freud believe about dreams? He believed they were the “royal road to the unconscious”. He believed the content of dreams is determined by unconscious processes as well as by the events of the day. 11. How do contemporary psychodynamic therapies differ from traditional psychoanalysis? 1. The client and the therapist sit face to face. 2. The therapist is usually directive 3. More focus on the ego as the executive of personality and less emphasis on the id. 12. What do humanistic therapies focus on? Focus on the quality of the client’s subjective, conscious experience. 14. What does client-centered therapy aim to do? It aims to provide insight into the parts of us that we have disowned so that we can feel whole. It creates a warm, therapeutic atmosphere that encourages self-exploration and self-expression. 18. What is a major difference between client-centered and Gestalt therapy? Gestalt therapy is highly directive 19. What are three exercises used in Gestalt therapy? 1. The dialogue- 2. I take responsibility-client ends statements about themselves saying they are responsible 3. Playing the projection- clients role play people with whom they are in conflict, expressing, for example, the ideas of their parents 21. What does behavior therapy focus on? It focuses on what people do. Such as smoking, drinking, overeating, etc. 24. How does systematic desensitization work? It is a gradual process in which the client learns to handle increasingly disturbing stimuli while anxiety to each one is being counterconditioned. 26. What does modeling rely on? It relies on observational learning. It is a behavior therapy technique in which a client observes and imitates a person who approaches and copes with feared objects or situations. 27. How does aversive conditioning work? A technique which undesired responses are inhibited by pairing repugnant or offensive stimuli with them. 29. What is an example of the method of successive approximation? You want to study 3 hours each evening but can concentrate for only half an hour. Rather than attempting to increase your study time all at once, you could do so gradually by adding, 5 minutes each evening. 32. What are the purposes and characteristics of a functional analysis of behavior? To help determine the stimuli that trigger the behavior and the reinforcers that maintain it. It helps you become more aware of the environmental context of your behavior and can increase your motivation to change. 35. What are four cognitive errors that contribute that contribute to clients’ miseries? 1. Clients may selectively perceive the world as a harmful place and ignore evidence to the contrary. 2. Clients may over generalize on the basis of a few examples. 3. Clients may magnify, or blow out of proportion, the importance of negative events. 4. Clients may engage in absolutist thinking, or looking at the world in black and white rather than in shades of gray. 40. What are two of the most important irrational beliefs? “Where is it written that you must…?” “What evidence do you have that…?” 42. What are six advantages of group therapy? 1. It is economical 2. Compared to one on one therapy, group therapy provides more information and life experiences for clients to draw upon. 3. Appropriate behavior receives group support. 4. Affiliating with people with similar problems is reassuring. 5. Group members who show improvement provide hope for other members 6. Many individuals seek therapy because of problems in relating to other people. Members of a group have the opportunity to practice social skills in a relatively non-threatening atmosphere. 45. What are five problems in conducting psychotherapy research? 1. Experiments are difficult to arrange and control 2. Problems in measuring outcomes in therapy 3. Are clinical judgments valid? 4. Does therapy help because of the method or because of the nonspecific factors? Nonspecific- features found in most therapies, such as a client’s relationship with the therapist 5. What is the experimental treatment in Psychotherapy outcome studies? 47. What kinds of people do best with psychodynamic and client-centered therapy? Well educated, verbal, strongly motivated clients who report problems with anxiety, depression, and interpersonal relationships. 49. What types of clients are behavior and cognitive therapy effective on? People with personality disorders, couples and families in distress, and for people with problems such as headaches, smoking, chronic pain, and bulimia nervosa. 51. What questions should be asked about therapy effectiveness? Which type of therapy is most effective for a particular problem and a particular patient. 53. What competence do therapists need to develop? They need to develop competence in determining what therapy would be most appropriate for people of different sociocultural backgrounds. 57. What do antipsychotic drugs do to a person with schizophrenia? In most cases, these drugs reduce agitation, delusions, and hallucinations. Many antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors in the brain. 59. What is Lithium used for and why do people discontinue its use? It was used on people with bipolar disorder, and it was discontinued because memory impairment was reported with the use of lithium. 60. Why is ECT controversial? Because there are side effects, including memory problems in the form of retrograde amnesia. And the fact that many professionals are distressed by the thought of passing an electric shock through a patient’s head and producing convulsions. 61. What is the history and effects of prefrontal lobotomies? It was performed to reduce violence and agitation. Didn’t work like reported. Some of the side effects are: hyperactivity, distractibility, impaired learning ability, overeating, apathy and withdrawal, epileptic type seizures, reduced creativity, and now and the death. 62. What are the research findings comparing cognitive therapy and drugs on various disorders? Drug therapy and ECT seem to be effective for some disorders that do not respond to psychotherapy alone. Yet common sense and research evidence suggest that psychotherapy is preferable for problems such as anxiety and mild depression. No chemical can show a person how to change an idea or solve an interpersonal problem.