Primary deviance-the first act of rule-breaking that may incur a label of ?defiant? and thus influence how people think about and act toward you Secondary deviance-subsequent acts of rule-breaking that occur after primary defiance and as a result of your new deviant label and people?s expectations of you Broken window theory of deviance-theory explaining how social context and social cues impact whether individuals act deviantly: specifically, whether local, informal social norms allow deviant acts Street crime-crime committed in public and often associated with violence, gangs, and poverty White-collar crime-offense committed by a professional (or professionals) against a corporation, agency, or other institution Corporate crime-a particular type of white-collar crime committed by the officers (CEOs and other executives) of a corporation Deterrence theory-philosophy of criminal justice arising from the notion that crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits Recidivism-when an individual who has been involved with the criminal justice system reverts back to criminal behavior Total institution-an institution in which one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day-to-day life; no barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life, and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority Panopticon-a circular building composed of an inner ring and an outer ring designed to serve as a prison in which the detainees can always be seen and the observer, housed in the inner ring, is hidden from those being observed Chapter 7 Stratification-systematic inequalities between groups that arise out of social processes and relationships Social equality-a condition whereby no differences in wealth, power, prestige, or status based on non-natural conventions exist Dialectic-a two-directional relationship, one that goes both ways Ontological equality-the notion that everyone is created equal in the eyes of God Equality of opportunity-the idea that inequality of condition is acceptable so long as the ?rules of the game? remain fair Bourgeois society-a society of commerce in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive Equality of condition-the idea that everyone should have an equal starting point Equality of outcome-a position that argues each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the ?game? Free rider problem-the notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to shirt responsibility and hope others will pull the extra weight Estate system-politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility (ownership of land) Caste system-religion-based system of stratification characterized by no social mobility (ascribed characteristics) Class systems-economically based system characterized by relative categorization and somewhat loose social mobility (achieved characteristics) Contradictory class locations-the idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure which fall between the two ?pure? classes Status hierarchy system-based on social prestige (occupations) Elite-mass dichotomy system-a few people have all power in society Meritocracy-a society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes, ability, and achievement Socioeconomic status-(SES) an individual?s position in a stratified social order Social mobility-the movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society Structural mobility-mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy Status-attainment model-approach that ranks individuals by SES and seeks to specify the attributes characteristic of people who end up in more desirable occupations
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