GOVT 307 Exam 1 Study Guide Power Of The Legislatures In The United Kingdom, France &Germany United Kingdom Two Seminal Concepts: Parliamentary Sovereignty ? the right to make or unmake any law. Rule of Law ? no person is punishable except for a distinct breach of law established [i.e. no arbitrary arrests or detainment] There is no single document called the constitution 4 Characteristics of British Government Centralized/Unitary System ? London has complete authority over local governments, with no individual state powers. Fusion of Powers ? The Prime Minister & Cabinet maintain their legislative positions while holding executive offices ? a concept that is illegal in the United States. Collective Ministerial Responsibility ? Two Party System [Labour & Conservative] ? Used to present distinct policy alternatives, with far more party discipline than that of the United States France Mixed System Presidential Strong Presidency ? Charles de Gaulle Problem: Stable but inflexible? Plebiscitarian Direct vote by the people on particular issues or policies ? the most votes wins. Parliamentary Leader of Majority Party in National Assembly becomes Prime Minister & chooses Cabinet ? much like the United Kingdom Problem: Instability? Republican Features National Assembly ? Directly elected representatives France aims for the best of both worlds, combining their Presidential & Parliamentary Systems, along with both the fusion and separation of powers. Key Details: The President is elected separately, with a 5-year term, no limits. The Prime Minister & Cabinet form the National Assembly & affect Party Politics Germany Political Parties Of The United Kingdom, France & Germany United Kingdom Conservative & Labour Parties are the majority, though there are numerous other parties that are still recognized. Know the electoral system, such as how elections occur Executives Of The Countries Above United Kingdom Chief Of State ? Queen Elizabeth II ? Mostly Ceremonial Power Head Of Government ? David Cameron ? Leader of Majority Party, Principle Advisor to the Crown France Chief Of State ? President Nicholas Sarkozy [Union for Popular Movement] Duties:. He appoints the Prime Minister, Can dissolve Parliament at any time, has absolute power of State of Emergency, and maintains the Power of Referendum/Plebiscite Head Of Government ? Prime Minister Francois Fillon [Union for Popular Movement] Duties: Initiates policy where President doesn?t, coordinates work of Cabinet, liaison between Executive & Legislative branches, mediates between parties of coalition, has little job security, but can be granted powers of decree by the President Authoritarianism & The Dynamics Of It Authoritarianism: a form of social organization characterized by submission to authority. It is opposed to individualism and democracy Common Characteristics Wealthy, elite class, closely linked to the ruler or rulers Regime tied to structure/function of the economic system Maintenance of status quo at virtually all cost Few political/civil liberties Military often has key role in governance Three broad classifications: Personal Dictatorships [Tyrannies] Three basic aims: to break spirit of subject, breed mutual distrust, and make subjects incapable of action. Tyrants usually gain power through force or fraud, and often use the military to maintain power, but it is not military rule. They may start out as military officers, politicians, or religious enthusiasts. Military Regimes [Juntas] Only exist where military rule has been institutionalized. Typically come to power via a coup d?état. Dynastic Rule [Monarchies] Absolute power is hereditary Existed nearly everywhere until the 20th Century Proportional Representation & Other Methods Of Representation Know the way democracy came about in the United Kingdom Know how history has affected the current systems in democracies you have studied Know the steps to democratization of formerly authoritarian countries
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