Study Guide for Exam I, Fall, 2010 Chapter 1, Define Terms: --Communication: The transmittal of information to others in socially appropriate ways. (bk) Communication is a symbolic, transactional process used by at least 2 people to create meaning. *Symbolic means exchange is mutually shared between sender and receiver. *Transactional means that when individuals communicate, they have mutual impact on each other --Speech: is the verbal means of communicating; each language consists of specific sounds (phonemes) that combine to form units of meaning. --Language: is the systematic and conventional use of sounds (or signs or written symbols) for the purpose of communication of self-expression. Language is complex and multifaceted --Pragmatics: the knowledge that underlies the use of language to serve communicative functions. --Semantics: study of meaning --Phonology: the sound system of the language --Syntax: system of combining words into sentences. --Morphology-system for combining units of meaning --Phonemes: specific sounds; 44 different phonemes in the English language. --Morphemes: units of meaning that cannot be divided into smaller parts --Sociolinguistics: socially appropriate use of language --Literacy: knowledge of reading and writing Properties of Language: Rule-Governed System and Generative System- Communicative Competence --Nativists? vs Empiricists? orientation for language development: Nativists say that knowledge cannot come from experience alone; Empiricists believe the mind is a blank slate ? all knowledge comes from experience --Nature vs Nurture: innate knowledge versus blank slate --Behavior theory of language development: language is built up via positive reinforcement of successive approximations to correct productions. This theory is primarily of historical interests. Chomsky?s Psycholinguistic Theory: Surface and Deep structures (Universal Grammar) Language Acquisition Device: *L.A.D. makes it possible for enfants to understand language and are able to learn any language. *Universal Grammar: this innate knowledge cannot be specific to any language, thus universal Chapter 2 --Cerebral Cortex: outer layer of the brain that controls higher mental functions, executive functions of planning and decision-making. --Identify Four Lobes of Brain (see graphics): --Corpus Callosum: a band of nerve fibers that connect left and right hemispheres of the brain. --Contralateral Connections: right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and vice versa. --Aphasia: condition in which language functions are severely impaired. --Description of right-hemisphere contributions to language (page 52-59):emotional tone, trouble understanding jokes, sarcasm, involved in the pragmatic use of language; limited syntactical abilities. --Left hemisphere (Broca and Wernicke?s areas): *Broca: near part of the cortex that controls movement (without grammar, short string of words) *Wernicke: next to the primary auditory cortex (can?t find the right words) --Cortical specialization for children: Neural Plasticity: children have more plasticity, meaning, the brain is able to take over functions they would not ordinarily serve. --Critical Period for language learning: biological determined period during which language acquisition must occur. (bk) Window of learning ends. --Sensitive Period for language learning- sometimes substituted for the critical period, the window of learning never truly closes- very narrow gap. Genetic connection to language learning Chapter 3 --Intentionality and the Three Stages of Development-Intentionality is central to communication, the goal of intention is to create a belief in listener?s mind. (Influence) *3 stages: Perolocutionary (birth-10 months)- children have affect on listeners, but signals that are produced don?t have intention of communicating. Care- givers impose meaning by interpreting, babies learn through this. Joint- reference increases likelihood of joint meaning. *Illocutionary (begins @ 10 months)- children become aware that their behavior can be used to communicate with others. Understand that others can be useful at satisfying their goals. (Intentionality) **Bates : protoimperatives (gestures) &protodeclaratives **Locutionary ( begins @ 12 months)- phonetically consistent forms (PCF); reoccurring utterances; use words and symbols to communicate; behavior uses language to refer. --Caregiver?s responsiveness : help mother-infant bonding; responsiveness aids in less crying, more communicative acts, and speaking more words earlier. *Protoconversations- mother ?infant bonding *Protoimperatives- behavior serves the function of commands *Protodeclaratives- children use objects to direct adult attention --Joint attention and joint references: both child and parent direct attention to same object, hopefully imparting same meaning. Help link the speech they hear and the meaning expressed. --New Born Infant- orientation that facilitates communication development, bonding with caregiver: eye-contact is important for forming relationships. --Piaget ----Basic premise of cognitive development- Early turn talking in collective monologues- cognitive skills exist at egocentric level --Sensorimotor period ---Describe general characteristics of learning and the role of schema development- role of accommodation, assimilation, and equilibrium- making connections between the sensory world and meaning. --Vygotsky----Basic premise of cognitive development: Early cognitive skills developed and guided via social interactions and later interrelated. Private speech practice. Zone of Proximal Development and scaffolding --How do communication interactions contribute to language development? --Describe ?Infant Directed Speech?: higher-pitched, intonation to imply meaning to certain things, rise and fall pattern, melodic to signal positive --Motherese or Infant Directed Speech *Paralinguistic features: slower speech, higher pitch, exaggerated intonation, varied loudness, less words per min. Signal speaker?s attitude or emotional state *Semantic features: fewer semantic functions, contextual *Syntactic features: restricted vocab, paraphrasing, concrete references to here and now Conversational features Conversational Registers Development of Pragmatic Component of Language --Dore?s Primitive Speech Acts: Labeling Repeating Answering Requesting (action) Requesting (answer) Calling Greeting Protesting Practicing Development of Conversational Skills Context for Conversations: Turn-taking skills Initiation Response Topic Topic Maintenance Conversational Partners Development of Narrative skills Conversational Registers
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