Chapter 12: Repaying Victims The historical role of restitution to crime victims (from Biblical times through colonial) In ancient Babylonian Code of Hammurabi, it was instructed territorial governors to replace lost property of someone who was robbed if the criminal was not captured. In the aftermath of a murder, the governor was to pay the heirs a specific sum in silver from the treasury. In the centuries that followed, restitution by the offender replaced compensation by the state. But during the Middle ages, restitution also faded away. Victims had no avenue of redress except to try to recover losses by suing offenders in civil court. In the 1800s, interest in compensation grew, when prison reform movement in Europe focused attention to the suffering of convicts, and in doing so indirectly called attention to the plight of their victims. In 1972, New Zealand developed a universal compensation program. The results of evaluations of restitution programs Funding is insufficient and outreach is inadequate, compensation plans are failing to live up to their humanitarian commitments. They have low budgets, lack of interest from police, prosecutors, and hospital emergency room personnel is a continuing problem. Several impact evaluations found that the promise of reimbursement would NOT increase the public?s degree of cooperation with police or ratings of the quality of police, prosecutors, or judges. Punitive, compensatory, and pecuniary damages in civil suits Punitive= money extracted to punish wrongdoers and deter others. Compensatory= to repay expenses Pecuniary= to cover lost income Son of Sam or notoriety for profit laws The victims or families of victims, if murdered, will receive the money earned by the offender from notoriety. Laws would take away profits gained by notorious criminals and distribute this money to their victims. Chapter 9: Victims of Violence by Lovers and Family Members Battered-woman syndrome or learned helplessness Battered-woman syndrome= Physical and emotional suffering caused by deliberate, repeated attacks; also, a defense against criminal charges in which the perpetrator argues that her retaliatory violence arose as a result of repeated physical abuse by a partner. Recent statistics on intimate partner homicide Male-on-female violence remains the more serious problem: Many more husbands and boyfriends kill their wives than other way around, regardless of the specific motives. Primary and secondary prevention Primary are intended to head off a resort to physical force by refuting myths, challenging stereotypes, and changing the attitudes held by large #s of potential victimizers and victims, such as high school students. Secondary attempts to teach high-risk couples negotiation and anger management techniques. Chapter 10: Victims of Rapes and Other Sexual Assaults The risk factors for rape Highest at risk for rape are females in their late teens to early 20s, unmarried, living in low-income families, unemployed, black, and residing in large cities Statistics on unfounded complaints of rape Rapes by an intimate or acquaintance, which occur more than once. OR wives raped by husbands. OR Sexually assaulted males (1 in 12 rapes is a male victim) Chapter 4: Violent Crimes: Murders and Robberies The demographic factors that indicate highest risk of murder victimization (p. 71) Men 15-24 years old, minority races, dangerous jobs. The death rates from murder and other causes for the general population and for young people Young people (15-24) are more than twice as likely as the general pop. to be murdered, whereas the general pop. has the most deaths from heart problems. Injury rates, completion rates, and self-protective strategies victims use in robberies 1/3 of robbery victims are injured, 1 in 9 robbery victims needs medical attention; 32% of robberies are unsuccessful; strategies include fleeing, fighting, or otherwise resisting. The demographic factors that indicate highest risk of robbery victimization Hispanics and blacks, men, in early 20s, never married, low income, reside in urban area Crime prevention, crime control, and victimization prevention Crime prevention= environmental design (fences, locks), ?the anticipation, recognition, and appraisal of a crime risk, and the initiation of some action to remove or reduce it?. Crime Control= measures taken in response to acts that have already been committed. Victimization prevention= specific precautions intended to increase the safety of particular persons, in contrast to crime prevention, which is societal in scope. Chapter 8: Children as Victims The proportions of children missing under different circumstances, NISMART 2: Stranger/acquaintance abductions- begin in street setting, force is used to abduct child, taken for sexual purposes. Family abductions- Usually an estranged spouse, the parent without custody abducts child. Runaways and throwaways- 45%- ran away from home or not wanted at home. Benign explanations- 43%- misunderstandings/miscommunications The Stockholm Syndrome: what it is and how commonly it occurs in hostage situations WHAT? Behavior by a hostage that appears to be supportive of the situation of the kidnapper. HOW? This survival strategy may arise from a sense of hopelessness and helplessness, a loss of identity, isolation from the outside world, trauma, and terror. POWERPOINTS 3-7
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