1. ANALYZING ADVERTISEMENT: feminism ? Lying down on a couch / off balance / defenseless / ? Tilted head ? Exposing neck ? vulnerability / easy prey ? Being submissive ? Curved body / contour / ? Touching self / sexuality ? Helpless ? Lost in thought ? suggesting she?s emotionally weak ? Revealing her cleavage / sexuality ? Her body is cut off..not in its entirety. ?the dismemberment of body?. She?s not a whole person?focus on the ?interesting parts of her body? ? Not alert / sunglasses furthers feeling of empty thought ? distances the viewer from the model ? Exceptions to femininity ? there?s some Masculinity : pant suit / suggestion that sunglasses are for hiding emotion? 1. The male advertisement ? ? Masculinity ? business suit / all black / professional and for the working world ? Walking uphill, suggesting a mission, standing upright ? Firm grip on the bag...even though it?s a ?purse?. ?fist? cologne? it reminds you of. ? Also showing ?cleavage?, the ?new image? of a male body is a ?sexual object?, but typically there is a woman added to the picture to balance. He?s very masculine overall which compensates for the slightly feminine touches. ? Hegemonic masculinity ? He?s active ? Strong face ? Looks serious / assertive / like he has a purpose 1. Glass escalator: article online ? When men enter a woman dominated job and escalate ? sometimes without effort, sometimes without protest ? Examples: male nurse, male teacher ? pressured by other male teachers to become principal or superintendent etc. ? QUESTION ? how would male teacher exemplify this? Pressure from peers (mentioned above) ? some students and parents are uncomfortable with a male teacher for their young elementary or middle school student. ? Advancement up the business ladder is assumed for men. Supervisors tend to look to male employees to see if they?re ready for a promotion, not the same for female employees. ? Male employees and their male supervisors tend (in article) to bond (like in golfing) and promotions are considered for ?buddies? ? When a woman defies the gender roles, attributions are made to her disposition, ?she?s bitchy? ? less likely to move up as a consequence. Women who follow gender norms are considered ?passive? and ?pushovers? and aren?t looked at for moving up the ladder. 1. Define ideal worker norm: (pg. 356 text) ? An employee with no extra work responsibilities (2 nd or 3 rd shift) and preferably has a stay at home spouse. Priority is work and won?t worry about responsibilities with children. Women who don?t have the tendency to get pregnant. ? Women are usually the stay at home spouse. ? Employers discriminate against women for hiring because they don?t want to deal with the potential of women leaving to handle business at home. ? Women might be distracted at work by worrying about things at home. ? Occupational segregation - men are placed in high-responsibility positions because women aren?t dependable. 1. (pg. 404) ? Potential example: sexual double standard ? Types of power ? Gender force field in Tichenor?s article ? Spouses may choose to challenge practice.. some spouses choose to follow conventional standards. Those that do decide to divide housework will play it off with others as if they were following conventional methods to save the accepted gender binary. ? The housework is often divided in an egalitarian manner, leading to (example) more sex in marriage. Most couples view sex as a gauge of success in marriage. ? Example, wives sometimes trade sexual favors for household favors. ? relates to the performance of desire article. ? While having more sex can be beneficial to marriage (in theory) the struggle that the performance of desire causes can be stressful. ? When gender is naturally defied in the relationship, such as woman making more money than her husband, he may overcompensate to regain his status as man of the house. Similar situation to a woman wanting to have sex more often than her husband. 1. (pg. 440) ? How did lesbian couples do family life? ? Made it more egalitarian ? example) Vivian and Cay parenting is jointly shared so that every member of family takes an active role in responsibilities. Some of the sample interviewees (1/4 of sample) did half time employment for both parents. ? It?s not dependent on who gives birth to the child? both were ?mothers?. ? Not unusual for higher earner to reduce hours to share care giving. Leaving work is less penalized for someone in a higher status position in these types of relationships. ? Weren?t dependent on higher earner...both members of partnership tried to work towards financial stability AND time for children?.a healthy balance of both. ? Part time work points out how they are placing masculine work as equal in importance to care giving. ? Why the division? ? How are they fundamentally challenging? ? The simple fact that they aren?t in a heterosexual relationship ? they ?opted into motherhood?. They chose to be the ?mother?. ? Care giving and breadwinning are equal in importance. 1. (pg. 47)/(491) ? With feminism becoming prominent, men are feeling threatened and compensating by becoming hypermasculine. ? Male violence is rationalized, ?I?m supposed to do this? ? caveman ? Blame shift, women are more controlling, men feel like they need to reassert their dominance. ? Claiming gender bias ? the legal system favors women and overreacts to minor incidents. ?victims of feminism (or gender politics)? 1. ?The Movement? ? Rationalizes/normalizes abuse-cultural constructions of male violence as volcanic ? caveman masculinity ? Thinks she can change him ? Blame herself ? contemporary constructions of gender hold women responsible for men?s aggression. ? Financially dependent ? Children ? Ashamed, embarrassed ? Fear of enhanced violence and of the unknown. 1. Remember to define Transnational Feminism! ? argues gender must be understood in relation to historic cultural economic and political contexts on the local, national and global levels. ? Self reflexivity ? how am I seeing this through a cultural lens? They might view our habits as unusual also. ? Islamic veiling ? we think they?re oppressed, but they CHOOSE to do a lot of this. ? Female circumcision 2. ?It?s always been this way and it always will? ? Gandhi?s paradox ? One person can?t make a difference, but a group can ? 3 steps to gender equality: acknowledge that patriarchy exists, pay attention, and little risks do a lot! (elaborate here, but these are the major points) Essay 1) Part one ? understanding women?s choices A. Using concentric rings: ? Media is a ring in the circles: pressure to look good for social standards. ? Outermost circle ? laws ? ?because we can dress this way? ? Innermost circle ? Person ? ?because I want to dress this way? ? Friends ? ?my friends and family do it and say it?s okay?, older sibling is setting an example of ?what?s popular? Part two ? women?s bodies are depicted in mainstream media how? ? A)?Consuming Orientalism? ? Dismemberment of body? focus on what?s important. ? - ^^ example of Objectification ? B) apply 2 nd part of question to ?Tip Drill? music video ? Card swipe down her body ? emphasizing that he has higher status (class rank) and money. He sexualized the act of spending money. ? We view different races as having more or less sexual potential ? There?s a foreign/exotic/seductive appeal. It highlights the white supremacy in the global order. ? The tip drill video has NO white women in it, goes back to how other races are seen as inferior to white women ? they are seen as easier to objectify. ? Women are shown higher in numbers in comparison to few men. ? Essay 2) March 9 th Lecture ? Gender and Economy ? Human capital theory: gender pay gap is the result of gender differences in individual characteristics of workers. 3 main factors ? prior experience, number of hours worked, education level. ? can include ideal worker norm, second shift, motherhood penalty, etc. ? Extra facts you can throw in: Remember that women?s responsibilities are routine and daily? men?s sometimes seem ?optional? ... or much less frequent. Never married women make less than never married men in the same occupation. Never married and child-free make the most money. Married women make less than half of what married men make. ? Even thought the pay gap is closing in, there?s still a large power difference. ? Men and women have the same amount of each factor (listed above), so this theory is flawed. The pay gap continues to exist. ? *** not suggested that you pick this theory!!! ? Gender segregation: Unequal distribution of men and women in different occupational categories (women and men do different jobs) ? Female ? less mobility, less pay, less prestige ? Nurses, human resources ? Nurses (mostly women) vs. vocational teachers (mostly men) ? Wages become lower when women join field of work (ie. Human resources) ? Makes up 50% of theory ? Level of education, training, stress, customer/client contact, responsibility ? Gender discrimination: Discriminatory barriers women encounter to their success ? Overt discrimination ? obvious, clear, easy to detect ? Ex. Labor unions use to exclude women ? Covert discrimination ? women lack access to social networks that are open to men ? Makes over 25% of the theory ? Quid pro quo ? involves the use of sexual threats or bribery to make employment decisions ? Directly exerts power over women ? Hostile environment ? EEOC defines as consisting of behavior that creates an ?intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment? ? Exerts power by creating an environment of intimidation and hostility towards women Essay 3) Welfare ? Two biggest changes in 1996: ? Time limits ? only five years of welfare during your life ? Work requirements ? cant only receive it if you are needy, you must be actually looking for work. You must you use welfare to find work or you will be punished by denial of welfare for a month. ? The feminization and juvenilization of poverty and devaluation of care work ? Women who get pregnant on welfare will not receive additional funds for their child ? By taking single mothers? children off of welfare, it has devalued parenting as a valid contribution to society and as a result has devalued care work and furthered poverty in that category ? Linked to class- and raced-based ? Cult of domesticity ? suggest that women?s paid labor was incompatible with domestic labor ? Gave to the rise of men being the ?bread winner? and women being the ?caretaker? ? Ideology of separate spheres ? Includes two spheres: ? Public & Private Spheres: Women were confined to the home which lead to an up in family policy that denied women?s rights in the public realm until the 70s ? Women of color were denied the same acknowledgment and couldn?t support their family as a result. They were expected to earn their pay and do care work at low wages ? Family wage ? Married men made more than single men under the condition that their wives were stay at home mothers and were not working. Olivia Desormeaux Untitled
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