Social Values and Welfare Chapter 2 Francis Fukuyama Economic life is deeply imbedded in social life, and it cannot be understood apart from the customs, morals, and habits of the society in which it occurs. In short, it cannot be divorced from culture Adam Smith How selfish soever man may be supposed, there are evidently some principles in his nature, which interest him in the fortune of others, and render their happiness necessary to him, though he derives nothing from it except the pleasure of seeing it. Overview Welfare in many societies is based on who they place the responsibility for poverty on. If poor people are responsible for their poverty then society will set up limited and punitive forms of welfare. If society is blamed for poverty, then society will seek to improve institutions that cause poverty. Modern Views of Humanity Some people believe humans are inherently good, and others believe humans are inherently evil. Question: What does the Bible say about human nature. Find Text to support answer. Modern Views of Humanity Continued Thomas Hobbes statement on human nature (p. 20). Hobbes saw humans as not to be trusted and evil in nature. On the other hand,others such as Rousseau saw humans as naturally good and that evil does not originate in human nature but rather has its source in the external world (p.20) Modern Views of Humanity Continued In regard to social welfare, if society believes humans are fundamentality evil, then it must guard against evil, which can be defined to include all unacceptable behavior. Thus poverty, mental illness, out-of-wedlock pregnancies, and hyperactive children are attributed not to external forces but to the evil nature of people. People who are poor may be demeaned because the problems is seen as their fault. Modern Views of Humanity Continued If people are considered good, then one can approach social welfare as a means- in Jane Addams’s memorable phrase, “to raising life to its highest value”. People’s lives can be improved and arrangements in society can be altered to reach higher goals for all citizens. Self Actualization Versus Irritation Response Theories Theories about human motivation can be divided into two main categories 1. Self-actualizations 2. Response to Irritation Self-Actualization Theory developed by Abraham Maslow. Theory states that each person has a hierarchy of needs, including basic physiological needs and the need for safety , belongingness, love, self-esteem, and self-actualization. Each person tries to satisfy these needs in ascending order so that the basic needs are cared for first, leaving the person free to work on the next “higher level” need. Fundamental to this point of view is the idea that there is a universal set of basic principles found in each person. Irritation Response Theory Poor people live uncomfortable lives based on the perspective that this will help them to stronger efforts to succeed. John Romanyshyn suggested that to regard people as evil and naturally lazy, driven to useful work only through hunger and fear of starvation is to suggest that societies characterized by scarcity require an image of people that will justify social discipline. This discipline is require to get necessary but distasteful toil accomplished. Proverbs 16:26 the “Laborer’s appetite works for him, his hunger drives him on.” In other words, viewing people as evil or lazy justifies society forcing people to work or to do the “the dirty work”. More affluent societies can afford more freedom of choice which may allow for more ideas on how to deal with the poor. Economics and Human Motivation Key words: 1. Less eligibility – no one on welfare can be paid as much as the lowest paid employed person in the community. Economics and Human Motivation Some believe that humans are economic beings and that a market mentality is the central and inevitable reality. Polyani believes that human have two selves: the economic self and the other self, which is ideal and spiritual. Polyani believed that social motives drives society and individuals not just economics. Thus assistance to the poor could just be based on our social responsibility to them (p.22) Altruism and Mutual Aid Altruism- Unselfish (looking outside of oneself). Kropotikin –mutual aid has existed in all types of societies throughout history. Mutual aid has helped societies to develop arts, knowledge, intelligence, progress in industry, science and the arts. Altruism and Mutual Aid Robert Trivers – states that altruism and mutual aid exists in all cultures. Richard Dawkins – states that “the predominant quality in successful genes is ruthless selfishness. Selfishness is the usual behavior but, in special circumstances, genes can achieve their own goals by fostering a limited altruism at he level of individual animals (p.24). Civilized society cannot exist without mutual aid whether it is a result of innate altruism, selfishness and limited altruisms, or as a result of morality and ethics, police, courts, and jails. Christopher Columbus noted how giving the Native Americans were (p.24). Did their altruism lead to them being dominated by people from the west?