Psychology 345 Fall 2007 Name:_Santiago Ramón y Cajal___ Human Neuropsychology Week 2 Lab Exercise Section:_000__________________ Sylvius PRO Neuroanatomy Software The following exercise is designed with the intent of acquainting you with basic neuroanatomy. We will be using Sylvius PRO Neuroanatomy software. As you navigate through the software, answer the following questions. The assignment will be graded out of 72 points ? the point breakdown is provided for each question below. Exercise 1: Embryonic Divisions Click on Embryonic Divisions under Surface Anatomy ? Photographic Atlas In the Navigator window (upper left corner), mouse over the different views to see their names. Find the midsagittal view and click on it to select. Once you?ve found the midsagittal view, click on the different regions in the brain in the Image window and look at the Structures window to find more information about them. If you are having trouble with pronunciation of the terms, just click on the speaker icon at the bottom of the Structures window. Question 1: What is the name of each of the five embryonic subdivisions (each in a different color) of the brain and what do they become in the mature human? (10 points) a. Telencephalon ? cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and basal forebrain nuclei b. Diencephalon ? thalamus and hypothalamus c. Mesencephalon ? midbrain d. Metencephalon ? pons and cerebellum e. Myelencephalon ? medulla Exercise 2: Lobes On the top right toolbar, click on the second icon to show the Atlas Launcher Click on Lobes under Surface Anatomy ? Photographic Atlas In the Navigator window, find a lateral view and look at each of the four lobes and the information that pertains to them in the Structures window. Question 2: Name the four major lobes of the human cortex and give one function associated with each. (8 points) a. Temporal lobe ? auditory, visual and language functions, memory and emotions b. Occipital lobe ? visual functions c. Parietal lobe ? somatic sensation, multimodal proprioception, language comprehension, attention, spatial awareness d. Frontal lobe ? motor, language, and executive functions Exercise 3: Major Cortical Areas On the top right toolbar, click on the second icon to show the Atlas Launcher Click on Major Cortical Areas under Surface Anatomy ? Photographic Atlas Question 3: Name seven major cortical areas and give a function associated with each. (14 points) a. Prefrontal Cortex ? working memory, planning and decision making, emotion, personality, and appropriate social behavior b. Premotor Cortex ? planning or programming of voluntary movements c. Primary Motor Cortex ? execution of volitional control of movement d. Primary Somatic Sensory Cortex ? receives somatosensory signals (processes tactile and proprioceptive information) e. Parietal Association Cortex ? multimodal proprioception, language comprehension, attention, and spatial awareness f. Occipital Association Cortex ? higher-order visual processing g. Primary Visual Cortex ? receives visual signals (processes visual information) +. Temporal Association Cortex ? memory, emotion, language comprehension, audition and visual recognition +. Primary Auditory Cortex ? receives auditory signals (processes auditory information) Exercise 4: Major Gyri On the top right toolbar, click on the second icon to show the Atlas Launcher Click on Gyri under Surface Anatomy ? Photographic Atlas Question 4: Find the following five major gyri and name either a structure within each gyrus or a structure adjacent to the gyrus. You?ll have to changes views in the Navigator window to get to all of them. (5 points) Precentral Gyrus ? contains primary motor cortex Postcentral Gyrus ? contains primary somatosensory cortex Superior Temporal Gyrus ? contains primary and higher order auditory cortex, and part of Wernicke?s area Cingulate Gyrus ? limbic component superior to the corpus callosum Parahippocampal Gyrus ? contains entorhinal cortex Exercise 5: Brodmann?s Areas On the top right toolbar, click on the second icon to show the Atlas Launcher Click on Brodmann?s Areas under Surface Anatomy ? Photographic Atlas Question 5a: Find three Brodmann?s areas visible from a lateral view of the brain?s surface, but not from a midsagittal view. Provide the number of each area and the lobe it is in. (6 points) a, b, & c. 2 (Parietal), 20 (Temporal), 21 (Temporal), 22 (Temporal), 37 (Temporal/Occipital), 39 (Parietal/Occipital/Temporal), 40 (Parietal), 41 (Temporal), 42 (Temporal), 43 (Parietal), 44 (Frontal), 45 (Frontal), 46 (Frontal), 47 (Frontal) Question 5b: Find three Brodmann?s areas that are visible from a midsagittal view but not from a lateral view. Provide the number and one function for each area. (6 points) a, b, & c. 23 (limbic), 24 (emotion, facial expressions, pain), 25 (personal and social behavior, emotion, decision making), 26 (limbic), 29 (limbic), 30 (limbic), 31 (limbic), 32 (personal and social behavior, emotion, decision making), 33 (emotion, pain), 34 (olfaction, episodic memory), 35 (episodic memory), 36 (visual processing, semantic memory) Exercise 6: Sulci and Fissures On the top right toolbar, click on the second icon to show the Atlas Launcher Click on Sulci and Fissures under Surface Anatomy ? Photographic Atlas Look around and explore using the Navigator and Image windows Question 6: Which structure or structures are separated or isolated by the following sulci and fissures? (5 points) Superior Temporal Sulcus: separates the superior and medial temporal gyri Calcarine Sulcus: contains primary visual cortex, separates the cuneus and lingual gyri Central Sulcus: separates the frontal and parietal lobes (precentral and postcentral gyri) Lateral (Sylvian) Fissure: separates posterior frontal and anterior parietal lobes from the superior temporal lobe Longitudinal Fissure: separates the two cerebral hemispheres (right and left) Exercise 7: Subcortical Structures On the top right toolbar, click on the second icon to show the Atlas Launcher Click on Subcortical under Surface Anatomy ? Photographic Atlas There?s a lot to look at with this one. Question 7: For each of the following structures or tracts, give its function; if no function is stated, give a structure within it or a structure adjacent to it. (10 points) Cerebellum: coordination of ongoing movement, motor planning and motor learning, coordinating and sequencing cognitive processing Medulla: located between the pons and the spinal cord (vital functions such as respiration) Pons: relay for the transfer of command signals from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum Midbrain: located between the pons and the diencephalon Corpus Callosum: interconnects the two hemispheres of cerebral cortex Thalamus: relays sensory information from the brainstem to the cerebral cortex and motor signals from the basal ganglia and cerebellum to the motor cortex Superior Colliculus: orients movements of the head and eyes Hypothalamus: reproductive, homeostatic, and circadian processes Mammilary Bodies: located on the posterior-ventral surface of the diencephalons Anterior Commisure: interconnects the anterior temporal lobes Exercise 8: Limbic System On the top right toolbar, click on the second icon to show the Atlas Launcher Click on Limbic System under Sectional Anatomy ? Photographic Atlas Use the Navigator window to toggle between views. Use the sliders in the 3-D view to gradually work your way through the slices of cortex. Try looking at them in different orientations (coronal, horizontal, sagittal). Look at the Structures window to find the names of the structures you?re looking at. Give the structures of the limbic system a look. Question 8a: Which limbic system structure is most superior (topmost)? (1 point) Cingulate gyrus Question 8b: For the following three limbic system structures, click on the name in the Structures window and find a function for each; if no function is given, report an adjacent structure. (3 points) Amygdala: emotion, cognition, and the regulation of autonomic processes Fornix: connects hippocampus to the hypothalamus and septal nuclei Hippocampal formation: involved in short-term declarative memory processes Exercise 9: Ventricles On the top right toolbar, click on the second icon to show the Atlas Launcher Click on Ventricles under Sectional Anatomy ? Photographic Atlas Get a feel for the size and placement of the ventricles using the Navigator window. Use the sliders in the 3-D view to gradually work your way through the slices of cortex. Try looking at them in different orientations (coronal, horizontal, sagittal). Question 9: Arrange the ventricles (Third ventricle, Fourth ventricle, Lateral ventricle and Cerebral aqueduct) from most superior (topmost) to most inferior (bottommost). (4 points) a. Lateral ventricle b. Third ventricle c. Cerebral aqueduct d. Fourth ventricle Adam Krawitz Microsoft Word - Sylvius Assignment Answers 2.doc
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