PAGE PAGE 8 Systems Physiology 1st Hour Exam February 17, 2005 Name________________________ Student ID #_____________________ Form A Section _____ (01 not Pharmacy or 02 if Pharmacy) PRINT CLEARLY on your Scantron Answer sheet: Your Name, Student ID #, Form (A or B), and Section (01 or 02) Multiple Choice Questions: Choose only the one best answer for each question (45 pts total) 1. The major source of parasympathetic innervation of the viscera is the _______ A. trigeminal cranial nerve B. vagus cranial nerve C. thoracic spinal nerve D. lumbar spinal nerve 2. At the peak of the action potential, the membrane potential is almost equal to the Na+ equilibrium potential as calculated from the Nernst equation. This reflects the fact that at the peak A. K+ permeability is equal to Na+ permeability B. the membrane potential is equal to zero C. K+ permeability is about 20 times greater than Na+ permeability D. Na+ permeability is about 20 times greater than K+ permeability E. Both A and B are correct 3. _______ active transport requires the existence of a favorable inward gradient for _____ diffusion A. Primary; K+ B. Secondary; K+ C. Primary; Na+ D. Secondary; Na+ E. Primary; ATP 4. The opening of an NMDA channel requires A. presynaptic release of glutamate B. membrane depolarization C. membrane hyperpolarization D. both A and B are correct E. both A and C are correct 5. Typical effects of parasympathetic activity include A. increased heart rate B. dilation of the bronchial tubes C. increased intestinal digestive activity D. increased sweating 6. The receptive field of a somatosensory neuron includes A. the body surface area which when stimulated affects the neural activity of the neuron B. the area of the spinal cord which when stimulated affects the neural activity of the neuron C. the area of the cerebral cortex which when stimulated affects the neural activity of the neuron D. both A and C are correct E. A, B and C are correct 7. Typically synaptic potentials with a fast time course result from neurotransmitters binding to _______ receptors, while those with a slow time course involve _______ receptor binding A. metabotropic; ionotropic B. ionotropic; metabotropic C. presynaptic; postsynaptic D. postsynaptic; presynaptic 8. The path that light takes in passing through the eye to strike the rods and cones is: 1. rods and cones; 2. cornea; 3. retinal neurons; 4. pupil; 5. lens A. 2; 5; 4; 3; 1 B. 2; 5; 4; 1; 3 C. 2; 4; 5; 3; 1 D. 2; 4; 5; 1; 3 9. Choose the correct pairings for the primary mechanism that permits a carrier protein to transport a solute across a membrane: A. ATP phosphorylation triggers change in the conformation of the carrier protein; B. spontaneous back-and-forth shifting of the conformation of the carrier protein; 1. primary active transport; 2. secondary active transport; 3. facilitated diffusion A. A-3; B-2 B. A-2; B-3 C. A-1; B-2 D. A-1; B-3 E. A-2; B-1 10. According to the Goldman equation, opening additional membrane channels for Na+ ________ the membrane, while opening additional channels for K+ ________ the membrane. A. depolarizes; hyperpolarizes B. depolarizes; depolarizes C. hyperpolarizes; hyperpolarizes D. hyperpolarizes; depolarizes 11. The high concentration of K+ ions within a cell reflects: 1. the presence of organic anions trapped in the cell; 2. the absence of significant Na+ ions in the cell as a result of the activity of the Na+/K+ primary active transporter; 3. the low permeability of the membrane to Na+; 4. the low permeability of the membrane to K+ A. 1 only B. 1 and 4 only C. 1, 2 and 3 only D. 1, 2, 3 and 4 12. A drug is applied to the eye which blocks sensory activity of the cones. Under these conditions one would expect to observe _______ visual acuity and _______ sensitivity in dim light conditions A. increased; unchanged B. decreased; unchanged C. increased; decreased D. decreased; increased 13. _____ membrane proteins are embedded in the plasma membrane so their _______ regions occupy the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, and their _______ regions contact the extracellular fluid and/or cytosolic surfaces of the membrane. A. Integral; nonpolar; polar B. Peripheral; nonpolar; polar C. Peripheral; polar; nonpolar D. Integral ; polar; nonpolar 14. Detachment of the myosin-actin cross-bridges requires that _______ bind to ______ A. Ca++; myosin B. Ca++; actin C. ATP; myosin D. ATP; actin 15. Contraction of the ciliary muscle _______ lens convexity thereby moving the point of focus _______ the front of the eye. A. increases; towards B. decreases; towards C. increases; away from D. decreases; away from 16. Membrane phospholipids are orientated A. randomly in the membrane B. so their polar ?heads? face towards the hydrophilic membrane surface C. so their ?tails? face away from the hydrophobic interior of the membrane D. so they form channels perpendicular to the membrane 17. The immediate trigger for release of neurotransmitter from the axon terminal is the ______ of _______ into the axon terminal. A. efflux; Ca++ B. influx; Na+ C. influx; Ca++ D. influx; Na+ 18. If in an experiment you expose the retinal receptors to an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase you would expect the receptors to _______ A. depolarize B. hyperpolarize 19. The adrenal medulla is embryologically related to the postganglionic neurons of the _______ nervous system and as such primarily secretes _______. A. parasympathetic; epinephrine B. sympathetic; acetylcholine C. sympathetic; epinephrine D. parasympathetic; acetylcholine 20. Choose the correct terms for the blanks. If one taps the patellar tendon to trigger a stretch reflex, one would expect to observe the following: 1. Stretch of the quadriceps muscle; 2. action potential discharge in the quadriceps muscle spindle sensory nerves; 3a. EPSPs produced in quadriceps motor neurons; 4a. action potentials initiated in quadriceps motor neurons; 5a. quadriceps muscle contracts AND 3b. _______ produced in spinal inhibitory interneurons; 4b _______ produced in hamstring motor neurons; 5b. _______ in hamstring motor neurons; 6b. hamstring muscles relax A. EPSPs; IPSPs; action potentials initiated B. IPSPs; EPSPs; action potentials initiated C. EPSPs; IPSPs; action potential initiation inhibited D. IPSPs; EPSPs; action potential initiation inhibited 21. The falling phase of an action potential (the text?s phase 2) results from _______ Na+ permeability and _______ K+ permeability of the axon membrane A. increased; increased B. increased; decreased C. decreased; increased D. decreased; decreased 22. Homeostasis is concerned with _______ (the) _______ of the ?Internal Environment? A. overall; development B. decreasing; change C. increasing; change D. maintaining; constancy 23. The primary function of the withdrawal reflex is to _______ while the crossed-extension reflex acts to _______ A. remove the stimulated limb from a damaging stimulus; maintain balance B. maintain balance; remove the stimulated limb from a damaging stimulus C. regulate flexor length; regulate extensor tension D. regulate extensor length; regulate flexor tension E. regulate extensor length; regulate flexor length 24. When a nerve is at rest (and therefore not generating any action potentials), one would expect the activation gates to be ____ and inactivation gates ____ in the voltage-sensitive Na+ channels, while the activation gates in the voltage-sensitive K+ channels would be ____ A. open; open; closed B. closed; open; closed C. open; closed; open D. open; closed; closed E. closed; closed; open 25. An autoimmune disease destroys motor neurons. You would expect to observe decreased numbers of neuron cell bodies in the _______ A. dorsal horn of spinal cord B. ventral horn of spinal cord C. ascending spinal tracts D. descending spinal tracts 26. You have discovered a new type of multicellular jelly fish-like animal with characteristics unlike any other animal known before. Much to your surprise you observe that relative to their concentrations in the interstitial fluid, the animal?s intracellular fluid is characterized by its low K+ concentration and high Na+ concentration. This unusual transmembrane distribution of Na+ and K+ is the result of the activity of an unusual K+/Na+ primary active transporter that pumps K+ out of the cell in exchange for the inward transport of Na+. Additionally steady-state channels in the cell membrane of this unusual animal are almost all permeable to Na+, while steady state channels permeable to K+ are rare. Given the above what would expect the resting membrane potential to be for this unusual animal? A. 0 mV B. -70 mV C. +70 mV 27. The large specialized touch and pressure sensitive sensory neurons terminate in the dorsal column nuclei located in the _______. A. spinal cord B. cerebral cortex C. thalamus D. medulla E. hypothalamus 28. If in an experiment you treated a nerve with a drug that blocked the opening of voltage-activated K+ channels, which phase of the action potential would you expect to undergo the greatest change? A. rising phase or depolarization (the text?s phase 1) B. falling phase or repolarization (the text?s phase 2) C. after-hyperpolarization (the text?s phase 3) D. after-depolarization (the text?s phase 4) 29. The primary motor cortex is located in the _______ lobe of the cerebral cortex A. pyramidal B. occipital C. temporal D. frontal E. parietal 30. The ?M line? is formed by proteins that interconnect the _______ and is located in the _______ A. thick filaments; I band B. thin filaments; I band C. Z line; I band D. thin filaments; A band E. thick filaments; A band 31. Presynaptic inhibition results from interactions between three neurons, in which the _______ of the first neuron suppresses the release of neurotransmitter by the _______ of the second neuron onto the dendrite (or cell body) of the third neuron. A. axon terminal; dendrite B. dendrite; axon terminal C. dendrite; dendrite D. axon terminal; axon terminal 32. Osmosis is the _____________________ across a semi-permeable membrane A. diffusion of water B. facilitated diffusion of water C. active transport of water D. diffusion of ions E. facilitated diffusion of ions 33. In a striated muscle fiber, the _______ extend radially from the depths of the fiber to its surface membrane. A. cross-bridges B. sarcoplasmic reticulum C. Z lines D. transverse tubules 34. Choose the correct structural sequence through which somatosensory neural activity is conducted when traveling from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex. 1. spinal cord; 2. thalamus; 3. medulla; 4. midbrain; 5. pons; 6. hypothalamus; 7. cerebral cortex A. 1, 3, 5, 4, 2, 7 B. 1, 3, 5, 4, 6, 7 C. 1, 5, 3, 4, 2, 7 D. 1, 3, 4, 6, 2, 7 E. 1, 5, 3, 4, 6, 7 35. The primary effect of IP3 is to A. activate DAG B. activate PIP2 C. close Ca++ channels D. open Ca++ channels E. A, B and C are correct 36. The enhancement of cardiac contraction by epinephrine is primarily mediated by epinephrine binding to _______ receptors in the target tissues A. alpha 1 B. beta 1 C. gamma 1 D. delta 1 37. The Internal Environment includes the A. interstitial fluid within a cell B. intracellular fluid bathing a cell C. both A and B are correct D. none of the above is correct 38. Choose the correct pairings between tissue types and primary functions: A. Connective tissue; B. Epithelial tissue; C. Muscle; D. Nerve; 1. Communication; 2. Control molecular and ion exchange; 3. Structural support; 4. Movement A. A-2; B-1; C-3; D-4 B. A-3; B-2; C-4; D-1 C. A-2; B-3; C-4; D-1 D. A-4; B-2; C-3; D-1 E. A-1; B-2; C-3; D-4 39. Arrange the following events in the order in which they occur when a touch receptor is mechanically stimulated. 1. depolarization to threshold at the 1st node of Ranvier; 2. mechanical distortion of the membrane of the sensory receptor; 3. influx of Na+ into the terminal; 4. initiation of an action potential; 5. formation of a receptor potential; 6. Na+ influx at the node of Ranvier; 7. opening of mechanically gated channels A. 2, 7, 5, 6, 1, 3, 4 B. 2, 7, 3, 5, 1, 6, 4 C. 2, 6, 4, 3, 1, 7, 5 D. 2, 7, 1, 6, 4, 5, 3 E. 2, 7, 3, 1, 5, 6, 4 40. Arrange the following events in the order in which they occur when a chemical messenger binds to a membrane receptor associated with a G protein: 1. alpha subunit activates adenylate cyclase; 2. G protein disassociates into alpha, and beta/gamma subunits; 3. G protein binds GTP; 4. G protein binds GDP; 5. cAMP synthesized from ATP; 6. ATP synthesized from cAMP; 7. cAMP activates protein kinase A; 8. ATP activates protein kinase A A. 4, 2, 1, 5, 7 B. 4, 2, 1, 6, 8 C. 3, 2, 1, 5, 7 D. 3, 2, 1, 6, 8 41. In the relaxed striated muscle fibers, Ca++ is primarily _______ the _______ A. located in; sarcoplasmic reticulum B. located in; transverse tubules C. bound to; thin filaments D. bound to; thick filaments 42. If in an experiment you inject a drug into a cell that inhibits the activity of protein kinase C, you would expect to observe: A. decreased levels of protein phosphorylation B. increased levels of protein phosphorylation C. increased levels of Ca++ release D. decreased levels of Ca++ release 43. The neurotransmitter at nicotinic synapses is _______, while the neurotransmitter at muscarinic synapses is _______. A. glutamate; GABA B. GABA; glutamate C. acetylcholine; GABA D. acetylcholine; glutamate E. acetylcholine; acetylcholine 44. In a typical resting cell the electrical driving force and the chemical driving force are __________ for Na+ ions A. both inward B. both outward C. inward and outward respectively D. outward and inward respectively 45. The scala media contains the high _______ endolymph which bathes the stereocilia of the _______ A. K+; cochlear nerve terminals B. K+; hair cells C. Na+; cochlear nerve terminals D. Na+; hair cells
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