Take Home Exam Five Online 2011 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. A bar graph that presents data from a frequency distribution is called a a. scatterplot b. histoplot c. histogram d. frequency polygon ____ 2. Statistics used to organize and summarize data are a. descriptive statistics b. inferential statistics c. correlational statistics d. significant statistics ____ 3. The standard deviation a. indicat es the average difference between each score in a group and the mean for that group of scores b. reveals the degree of skew for a group of scores c. is sensitive to scores at the extremes of a distribution of scores d. is used to determine whether a data set is positively or negatively skewed ____ 4. In a normal distribution, most scores fall near the __________ of the distribution, and the number of scores gradually __________ as one moves away from the mean. a. low end; increases b. center; declines c. center; increases d. high end; declines ____ 5. As the magnitude of a correlation coefficient increases, the a. data points in a scatter diagram become more dispersed b. data points in a scatter diagram become less dispersed c. correlation coefficient changes from a positive to a negative number d. correlation coefficient changes from a negative to a positive number ____ 6. In a n attempt to learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. This technique is called a. introspection b. retrospection c. empiricism d. psychoanalysis ____ 7. Research findings from the 1950s and 1960s clearly established that a. the mind has unequivocal control over the body b. the body has unequivocal control over the mind c. the mind and body reciprocally influence each other d. the cognitive viewpoint will reconcile many research findings ____ 8. Which of the following BEST characterizes people's understanding of reality? a. highly objective b. highly subjective c. genetically determined d. a passive process ____ 9. Which of the following is NOT one of the "Rs" in the SQ3R method of studying? a. review b. remember c. recite d. read ____ 10. Saying out loud the answers to key questions in the textbook constitutes which of the following steps in the SQ3R method? a. read b. recite c. review d. survey ____ 11. A scientific theory has to be a. true b. accepted by others c. testable d. well established and not disputed ____ 12. A scientific journal refers to a. a personal diary kept by a scientist b. a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly articles c. a detailed record of the daily procedures followed in conducting a study d. a collection of biographies of famous scientists ____ 13. Dr. Macator predicts that people will act more aggressively during the heat waves of summer than they will during the cold spells of winter. This suggests that Dr. Macator believes that temperature and level of aggression are a. negatively correlated b. i ndependent variables c. uncorrelated d. positively correlated ____ 14. "Statistically significant" means that the results of an experiment most likely a. resulted from chance variations b. were not due to chance c. had practical significance d. were important ____ 15. Imagine that a group of researchers conducted a single-blind study designed to test the effectiveness of subliminal-message weight-loss tapes. Suppose the researchers found that everyone lost weight during the study, even those w ho were given tapes without any subliminal messages. This type of result would a. indicate that the independent and dependent variables in the study are negatively correlated b. provide evidence that subliminal tapes are effective in promoting weight loss c. be evidence of a placebo effect d. be evidence that the study contained confounding variables ____ 16. Both sodium and potassium ions a. carry a negative charge b. carry a positive charge c. are concentrated outside the neuron's cell body d. are concentrated inside the neuron's cell body ____ 17. Juan is in a state of high arousal. His heart is beating quickly and he is perspiring. These automatic responses are largely controlled by activity in his a. temporal lobe b. limbic system c. hip pocampus d. hypothalamus ____ 18. When Jeffrey slipped on the stairs and hit his head he saw "stars" for several minutes. The "stars" were most likely a result of activity in Jeffrey's a. temporal lobes b. prefrontal cortex c. occipital lobes d. primary somatosensory cortex ____ 19. The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called a. Wernicke's area b. Broca's area c. Cannon's area d. Sperry's area ____ 20. When one member of a gene pair is more influential, such that its trait is expressed over the trait of the other gene, it is said to be a. expressive b. genotypic c. phenotypic d. dominant ____ 21. Vanessa describes a new melody that she heard at a concert by telling you each of the individual notes, in the order that they were played. In providing this type of description, it appears that Vanessa processed the melody using a. top-down processing b. figure-ground processing c. opponent-processes d. bottom-up processing ____ 22. Carmella is at a water park. She watches several sliders ride the "Max" and decides to try it for herself. Based on the work by Proffitt and his colleagues, you might predict that when she gets to the top, Carmella will a. ride the slide because it will appear less steep from the top than it did from the bottom b. ride the slide because it will appear shorter from the top than it did from the bottom c. have seco nd thoughts because the slide will appear longer from the top than it did from the bottom d. have second thoughts because the slide will appear steeper from the top than it did from the bottom ____ 23. The two major cues we use to localize sound sources in space are a. distance and loudness b. intensity and timing differences at the ears c. pitch and loudness differences at the ears d. loudness and timbre differences at the ears ____ 24. Information that an injury has just occurred is carried to the brain via the __________ pain pathway; information that the injury has not yet healed is carried to the brain via the __________ pain pathway. a. fast; slow b. fast; fast c. slow; fast d. slow; slow ____ 25. The vestibular sense reports information from a set of receptors in a. the joints b. the muscles c. the inner ear d. the skin ____ 26. Sleep apnea is characterized by a. a sudden, irresistible urge to sleep during normal waking hours b. a reflexive gasping for air during sleep c. an extremely low rate of REM d. night terrors ____ 27. Scott's brain is producing alpha and theta waves, and he shows a decrease in his heart rate, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide elimination. Scott is probably a. hypnotized b. in a drug-induced trance c. meditating d. in REM sleep ____ 28. Bryan finds that, where he used to need only one, he now needs two or more sleep ing pills to fall asleep. This development indicates that Bryan a. is using sleeping pills as a recreational drug b. has developed a tolerance to sleeping pills c. has become physically addicted to sleeping pills d. has become psychologically addicted to sleeping pills ____ 29. In classical conditioning, a subject can learn to respond to one CS but not to another similar CS. This is the phenomenon of a. extinction b. stimulus generalization c. conditioned forgett ing d. stimulus discrimination ____ 30. Negative reinforcement involves a. the presentation of a pleasant stimulus b. the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus c. the removal of a pleasant stimulus d. the removal of an unpleasant stimulus ____ 31. Any event that follows a behavior and results in the behavior having a lower probability of happening in the future is known as a a. negative reinforcer b. positive reinforcer c. punisher d. vicarious conditioner ____ 32. Seven-year-old Tracy heard a joke in school and asks you: "How could you find a lost dog in the woods?" When you are stumped, she tells you: "You stand near a tree and listen for the bark." Tracy's play on words indicates that she is developing a. metaling uistic awareness b. psycholinguistic skills c. linguistic relativity d. the ability to use linguistic heuristics ____ 33. According to Pinker and Bloom (1992), if the acquisition of language produced a 1% difference in mortality rates among overlapping Neanderthal and human populations, Neanderthals would have become extinct in a. 10 generations b. 30 generations c. 4000 generations d. 30,000 generations ____ 34. M rs. Bondle seldom corrects her 4-year-old's grammatical errors, such as "Her drinked my milk." However, she is careful to correct factual errors, such as "Tiger ate his milk." Assuming Mrs. Bondle's child develops normal language skills, her pattern of fe e dback would be inconsistent with a. the behavioral view of language development b. the nativist view of language development c. all major theories of language development d. the transformational theory of language development ____ 35. Wilson is watching two different roulette-type games at a local charity bazaar. Each game costs $1.00 to play. In one game there are ten different numbers, and if the number he selects comes up, he will win $12.00. In the other game there are 100 differen t numbers, but if the number he selects comes up, he will win $50.00. Based on expected value theory, Wilson should a. play the second game because it has a higher expected value b. play either one of the games because they both have the same expected valu e c. not play either game because they both have such low odds of winning d. play the first game because it has a higher expected value ____ 36. Christine has been following the state lottery for over a year, and she has a re cord of the number of times every number has been selected. She is ready to invest $1000 in lottery tickets with the same six-number combination on each ticket. She is going to choose the six numbers that have occurred the least frequently in the last yea r because she is sure they will be picked eventually. In this case, Christine is showing evidence of a. the availability heuristic b. the base rate fallacy c. the gambler's fallacy d. the conjunction fallacy ____ 37. Manipulations that decrease blood glucose level cause __________; manipulations that increase blood glucose level cause __________. a. an increase in general arousal; a decrease in general arousal b. a decrease in general arousal; an increase in general a rousal c. a decrease in hunger; an increase in hunger d. an increase in hunger; a decrease in hunger ____ 38. Sean and his wife have been kissing and caressing for about 15 minutes. His leve l of arousal is still increasing, and he has begun to secrete some seminal fluid from the tip of his penis. Based on the phases described by Masters and Johnson, Sean is in the a. plateau phase b. excitement phase c. orgasmic phase d. resolution phase ____ 39. Compared to low scorers, people who score high in the need for affiliation a. devote more time to interpersonal activities b. worry less about acceptance from others c. are more argumentative in groups d. show all of these characteristics ____ 40. Imagine that a sociologist had been tracking the patent index in a developing country for the past 30 years. Over that time, the number of patents applied for has been steadily increasing. Based on David McClelland's work, it is likely that this c ountry's need for achievement will a. also have steadily increased over the past 30 years b. have shown a steady decline over the past 30 years c. not have changed over the past 30 years d. have fluctuated randomly over the past 30 years ____ 41. Fernando and Isabelle are both seniors at Central High, and their school's basketball team just won the divisional championship. Fernando was certain the Central High team would be eliminated early, while Isabelle was certain their team would win the divi s ional title. Based on the research into the emotional impact of unexpected outcomes, you should predict that, compared to Fernando, Isabelle will a. be more excited by Central High's win, because it was what she expected b. tend to overestimate Central Hi gh's chances for future victories c. be less excited by Central High's win, because it was what she expected d. tend to underestimate Central High's chances for future victories ____ 42. Omar' s wife conceived a baby seven days ago, and does not yet know she is pregnant. His wife's pregnancy is currently in the a. germinal stage b. embryonic stage c. fetal stage d. placental stage ____ 43. Lane is currently attending p reschool. According to the stages outlined by Piaget, Lane would most likely be in the a. sensorimotor period of cognitive development b. formal period of cognitive development c. preoperational period of cognitive development d. concrete period of cognitive development ____ 44. Walter and Camille have been an "empty nest" couple since their youngest son left for college last year. Now that they are alone, it is likely that Walter and Camille will find a. their marital satisfact ion will drop considerably b. the transition to being a "childless" couple will be stressful and depressing c. their marital satisfaction will start to increase d. they spend less time together than they did when the children were home ____ 45. In relation to age, which of the following does NOT belong with the others? a. concrete operations b. generativity versus self-absorption c. midlife transition d. decreased speed in cognitive processes ____ 46. Joan is an unfailingly polite person who always considers the feelings of others. This tendency to act in a similar manner across situations is indicative of which of the following qualities of personality? a. consistency b. distinctiveness c. reflexivit y d. social desirability ____ 47. According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in __________ are characterized as outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, and assertive. a. neuroticism b. extraversion c. conscientiousness d. openness to experience ____ 48. Gordon hadn't thought about the band "Spider Wings" for several months. However, as soon as Donovon mentioned it, Gordon instantly thought about the great time he had at their last concert. According to Freud, before Don ovon mentioned the "Spider Wings," Gordon's memory of the concert was contained in his a. subconscious mind b. preconscious mind c. conscious mind d. unconscious mind ____ 49. Giving self-justifying plausible excuses that hide the real reasons for our behavior defines the defense mechanism known as a. regression b. reaction formation c. projection d. rationalization ____ 50. Whenever Wanda is denied anything by her husband, she pouts and gives him the silent treatment. This immature way of dealing with reality can be referred to as a. regression b. reaction formation c. displacement d. projection ____ 51. Ashley is nine years old, and it seems that every day she brings home a different friend from school. As she expands her social contacts beyond her immediate family, Ashley is showing behavior that is typical during Freud's a. latency stage of psychosexual development b. genital stage of psychosexual development c. phallic stage of psychosexual development d. preconscious stage of psychosexual development ____ 52. Natalie is eight years old. Her parents have always spoiled her and given her an ything that she has asked for. Based on Adler's theory of individual psychology, this parental pampering may cause Natalie a. to develop exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy b. to develop a weak superego c. to be dominated by her superego as a n adult d. to develop feelings of competence and self-sufficiency ____ 53. Dr. Hewlett believes that early childhood experiences have a strong influence on adult personality, and that our personality is largely shaped by unconscious for ces. Dr. Hewlett's views MOST closely mirror those of the a. behavioral perspective b. humanistic perspective c. psychodynamic perspective d. biological perspective ____ 54. Juan used to be a fairly generous individual, but it seemed that whenever he loaned things to people, they were never returned, or they were returned broken. Consequently, Juan is no longer generous. Based on principles of operant conditioning, Juan's lac k of generosity is most likely a result of a. punishment b. positive reinforcement c. negative reinforcement d. extinction ____ 55. The term that Albert Bandura uses to refer to the assumption that internal menta l events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence each other is a. reciprocal determinism b. mutual dependency c. psychic determinism d. reciprocal relativism ____ 56. In the Featured Study, which looked at the correlations between individual personalities and people's working environment, independent observers who visited offices were the LEAST accurate in assessing the individual's level of a. agreeableness b. conscie ntiousness c. extraversion d. emotional stability ____ 57. The belief that one has the ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes is referred to as a. self-efficacy b. self-monitoring c. self-control d. self-justification ____ 58. The collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior is referred to as one's __________, according to Rogers. a. self-concept b. phenomenology c. state of incongruence d. level of self-actualization ____ 59. According to Han Eysenck, __________ involves being egocentric, impulsive, cold, and antisocial. a. neuroticism b. psychoticism c. extraversion d. introversion ____ 60. Assume that personality researchers have isolated a new trait they called "prajna." If these researchers report that fraternal twins reared together are more similar in this trait than identical twins reared apart, it would indicate that a. genetics has a larger influence than environment in the expression of prajna b. neither genetics nor environment influences the expression of prajna c. environment has a larger influence than genetics in the expression of prajna d. genetics and environment exert equivalent influences in the expression of prajna ____ 61. The greatest inconsistency between who a person is and the impression he or she creates is likely to be found in a a. sensation seeker b. high self-monitor c. se lf-actualizer d. person with a realistic self-concept ____ 62. Deborah works in the personnel department of a large computer software company. She is one of the best interviewers that the company has. She seems to have an un canny ability to detect deception and pretension during interviews with prospective employees. In this instance, it is likely that Deborah a. is low in self-monitoring b. has a high level of overcompensation c. is high in self-monitoring d. has high self-efficacy ____ 63. The MOST controversial use of personality assessment is in which of the following areas? a. personnel selection b. clinical diagnosis c. vocational counseling d. personal counseling ____ 64. The personality inventory developed by Raymond Cattell that describes an individual in terms of a limited number of personality source traits is the a. Thematic Apperception Test b. 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire c. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory d. California Psychological Inventory ____ 65. Colton is completing a long personality inventory, and he doesn't really want to take the time to read each of the questions in detail. Instead, he simply disagr ees with all the statements. Colton's method of completing the personality inventory shows a. a social desirability bias b. the use of deliberate deception c. a negative response set d. a self-monitoring bias
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