Take Home Exam Four Online 2011 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. The most frequently occurring score in a group of scores is the a. mean b. median c. mode d. harmonic mean ____ 2. Imagine that Jenilee earned the highest score in the entire class on the midterm exam, and the correlation between midterm exam scores and final exam scores is -0.02. If the final exam grades for Jenilee's class are 92, 84, 79, 65, and 54, a. Jenilee most likely earned the score of 54 b. it is impossible to predict Jenilee's final exam score because the correlation coefficient is so small c. Jenilee most likely earned the score of 92 d. Jenilee most likely earned the score of 79 ____ 3. Nelson's company manufactures computer games, and Nelson is interested in the relationship between the price of a game and people's ratings of the game's quality. He surveys 1000 customers, selected at random, and finds the correlation between p rice and quality is +0.50. Based on this information, Nelson can conclude that a. people perceive the quality of a game to be better when the price is high than when the price is low b. increasing the price of a game will increase the perceived quality of the game for approximately 50% of consumers c. people perceive the quality of a game to be better when the price is low than when the price is high d. decreasing the price of a game will increase the perceived quality of the game f or approximately 50% of consumers ____ 4. Dr. Smythe believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as taste, it is necessary to understand the purpose that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produ ce taste sensations. Dr. Smythe's views are most consistent with a. the behaviorist approach to psychology b. the functionalist approach to psychology c. the structuralist approach to psychology d. the psychoanalytic approach to psychology ____ 5. Widely shared customs, beliefs, values, and norms refer to which of the following? a. ideographic nature b. culture c. ontogeny d. phylogeny ____ 6. The spatial tasks on which males tend to do better than females generally involve a. remembering locations b. mentally rotating objects c. identifying objects in a visual field d. processing verbal directions to a specific location ____ 7. The mode in a group of scores describes the _______________ for that group of scores. a. central tendency b. association with another group of scores c. halfway point d. variability ____ 8. Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a perso n's toes and the number of shoes the person owns. In general, people who own the fewest number of shoes would have a. small toes b. large toes c. medium-sized toes d. either very large or very small toes ____ 9. To generalize results to a population, we must first a. select a biased sample from the population of interest b. oversample selected subgroups in the population c. draw a representative sample from the population of interest d. ensure that all the variables have been operationally defined ____ 10. Sampling bias is a problem because it a. limits the generality of the findings b. makes it impossible to use inferential statistics c. makes it difficult to avoid a confounding of variables d. makes the effect of the independent variable appear to be bigger than it really is ____ 11. Research has revealed that subjects who participated in research involving deception a. were psychologically distressed at being deceived b. suffered extreme embarrassment at being "fooled" c. didn't mind being misled and generally enjoyed taking part in research d. lost the ability to trust others ____ 12. When curare blocks the action of acetylcholine by occupying its receptor sites, it is acting a. as an agonist b. as an antagonist c. as a neurotransmitter d. as a placebo ____ 13. Dr. Laessig has just discovered a new drug named GL8 that produces side effects such as paralysis and memory loss. Based on this information, Dr. Ferracane's drug may be acting as an a. agonist for acetylcholine b. agonist for GABA c. antagonist for acetylcholine d. antagonist for dopamine ____ 14. When Jeffrey slipped on the stairs and hit his head he saw "stars" for several minutes. The "stars" were most likely a result of activity in Jeffrey's a. temporal lobes b. prefrontal cortex c. occipital lobes d. primary somatosensory cortex ____ 15. The lobe of the brain with primary responsibility for processing bodily sensations is the a. parietal lobe b. occipital lobe c. frontal lobe d. thalamic lobe ____ 16. Shane and Blane are identical (monozygotic) twins. however, people seldom get th e two brothers mixed up because Blane is almost 2 inches shorter than Shane. The difference in height means that a. even though both brothers display the same phenotype, they have different genotypes b. because the brothers display different phenotypes, t hey must also have different underlying genotypes c. even though both brothers share the same genotype, they display different phenotypes d. Blane is heterozygous for the "tallness" trait, and Shane is homozygous for the "tallness" trait ____ 17. Londra and Sondra are identical twins who have been raised together in the same home. Londra has developed a psychological disorder, but Sondra does not appear to have the same disorder. This information could be used as evidence to suggest that a. genetic factors have more influence than environmental factors in this disorder b. environmental factors have more influence than genetic factors in this disorder c. both genetic and environmental factors contribute equally to this disorder d. neither genetic nor environmental factors contribute to this disorder ____ 18. You turn on a 3-way light bulb at 50 watts, then click it up to 100 watts, then up to 150 watts. The apparent increase in brightness from 50 to 100 is __________ the apparent increase in brightness from 100 to 150. a. less than b. more than c. the same as d. indeterminate relative to the other intensities ____ 19. The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by changes in the size of the a. pupil b. lens c. cornea d. retina ____ 20. Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are rods; there are no cones. Based on what is known about human vision you might expect that this animal would a. have poor vision in low illumination b. have no color vision c. have poor peripheral vision d. be able to detect extremely fine details ____ 21. Cutting fibers in the neural pathway leading away from the periacqueductal gray in the midbrain a. reduces the perception of pain b. enhances the effects of morphine and other opiate drugs c. increases the perception of pain d. causes the release of endorphins ____ 22. The school of painting that reduces reality to combinations of geometric forms laid out in a flat space is a. cubism b. surrealism c. impressionism d. pointillism ____ 23. During sleep, there is a. no awareness of external stimuli b. no awareness of either external or internal stimuli c. awareness of all external stimuli d. selective awareness of external stimuli ____ 24. The MOST common known sleep disorder is a. sleep apnea b. night terrors c. insomnia d. somnambulism ____ 25. Which of the following drugs is LEAST likely to result in a fatal overdose? a. LSD b. heroin c. cocaine d. barbiturates ____ 26. In classical conditioning, the stimulus that naturally evokes an unlearned response is the a. conditioned stimulus b. unconditioned stimulus c. unconditioned reinforcer d. conditioned reinforcer ____ 27. A major automaker has developed a series of television commercials that show its cars in the great outdoors, in peaceful settings, away from the hustle and bustle of big cities. They hope that seeing the cars in these settings will condition good feelings about their cars. This particular auto maker is attempting to use a. classical conditioning in its advertising campaign b. operant conditioning in its advertising campaign c. observational learning in its advertising campaign d. noncontingent reinforcement in its advertising campaign ____ 28. According to Pavlov, the key to classical conditioning is the a. strength of the UCS b. strength of the CS c. resistance to extinction brought about by sign-releasing stimuli d. pairing of stimuli in time (temporal contiguity) ____ 29. The technique used to teach animals complex tricks, such as teaching pigeons to play Ping-Pong, is a. respondent conditioning b. continuous reinforcement c. programming d. shaping ____ 30. Summer is teaching herself to type using a computer software package. The first time she used the program, the sentences she was supposed to type scrolled very slowly across the computer screen and when she finished the computer played a clapping sound. H o wever, now she has to type the material faster than her previous "best time" before the computer plays the clapping sound. This computer software package incorporates a. classical conditioning b. modeling c. shaping d. negative reinforcement ____ 31. After owning a car with a manual transmission, Don buys a car with an automatic transmission. When first driving his new car, he keeps reaching for the nonexistent clutch and gearshift. This is an example of a. acquisition b. stimulus generalization c. stimulus discrimination d. shaping ____ 32. Maxwell runs a lawn care service and he charges his clients based on the square footage of their yard, rather than charging an hourly rate for his services. In this example, Maxwell is working on a. a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement b. a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement c. a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement d. a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement ____ 33. A student who studies in order to earn high grades is wor king for __________; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for __________. a. negative reinforcement; positive reinforcement b. positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement c. negative reinforcement; negative reinforcement d. positive reinforcement; positive reinforcement ____ 34. The first step in a behavior modification program is to a. gather baseline data b. specify the antecedents c. specify the target behavior d. design a program ____ 35. Stimulus discrimination is to stimulus generalization as reinforcement is to a. acquisition b. shaping c. punishment d. resistance ____ 36. The child's first words are generally spoken at about what age? a. 3 to 5 months b. 6 to 8 months c. 10 to 13 months d. 18 to 21 months ____ 37. A child's early two-word utterances a. are often described as telegraphic speech b. usually begin to appear at about age 12 months c. are always direct imitations of parents' speech d. have little or no communicative value, since the child does not yet use rules of syntax ____ 38. Metalinguistic awareness refers to a. the ability to recognize one's own grammatical errors b. the ability to reflect on the use of language c. knowledge of which verbs are irregular d. awareness of the role of positive reinforcement in language acquisition ____ 39. Kanzi's ability to distinguish between "Pour the Coke in the lemonade" and "Pour the lemonade in the Coke" illustrates an understanding of a. neither syntax nor semantics b. semantics, but not syntax c. both syntax and semantics d. syntax, but not semantics ____ 40. Of the following, the ones that are NOT considered to be interactionist theories of language acquisition are a. linguistic relativity theories b. social communication theories c. emergentist theories d. cognitive theories ____ 41. The entrance exam that Jaclyn is taking for graduate school has a number of ques tions such as: glove is to hand as sock is to __________. Questions of this type are considered to be a. problems of arrangement b. problems of transformation c. problems of inducing structure d. ill-defined problems ____ 42. "Apple is to fruit as hamburger is to __________" is an example of a. an arrangement problem b. a series-completion problem c. the representativeness heuristic d. an analogy problem ____ 43. Lance is trying to solve a complex anagram puzzle. He systematically tries every potential solution by testing each possible combination of the letters provided. In this case, Lance is a. working backward to solve the anagram b. using an algorithm to solv e the anagram c. using a heuristic to solve the anagram d. using means-ends analysis to solve the anagram ____ 44. According to Nisbett and his colleagues, an analytic cognitive style is one that focuses on a. objects and their properties, rather than overall context b. following step-by-step procedures rather than using mental shortcuts c. context and relationships among the elements in a field d. external frames of reference and takes the environment as a given ____ 45. Research by John Payne found that people adapt their decision-making approach to the demands of the task. Specifically, as choices become more complex, people tend to shift towar d a. more complex decision strategies b. more risky decision strategies c. simpler decision strategies d. more conservative decision strategies ____ 46. The longest stage of prenatal development is the a. fetal stage b. embryonic stage c. germinal stage d. zygotic stage ____ 47. The age of viability, referring to the age at which the fetus __________, is reached __________. a. can first respond to stimulation; at about 9 weeks b. can survive if born prematurely; between 22 and 26 weeks c. first has a heartbeat; at about 16 weeks d. experiences no further cell division in the brain; between 36 and 38 weeks ____ 48. Genital herpes and AIDS are typically passed from mother to offspring during the a. germinal stage b. embryonic stage c. fetal stage d. birth process ____ 49. Of the countries listed below, which country has the HIGHEST infant mortality rate? a. Singapore b. Hong Kong c. United States d. Ireland ____ 50. Thomas and Chess refer to a child who tends to be glum, erratic in sleep and eating, and resistant to change as a. an easy child b. a slow-to-warm-up child c. a mixed temperament child d. a difficult child ____ 51. One-year-old Tommy is extremely distressed whenever his mother leaves him, yet resists her attempts to comfort him when she returns. Tommy probably has __________ attachment with his mother. a. no attachment b. a secure attachment c. an anxious-ambivalen t attachment d. an avoidant attachment ____ 52. A newborn who sucks reflexively at her mother's breast is demonstrating which of the following Piagetian processes? a. assimilation b. accommodation c. acquisition d. adaptation ____ 53. A child sees his mother crying and brings her his own favorite teddy bear to comfort her. This child is demonstrating a. egocentrism b. animism c. irreversibility d. centration ____ 54. According to Piaget, during the formal operational period of cognitive development, children begin to a. acquire the concept of conservation b. understand the nature of hierarchical classification c. think primarily in terms of concrete objects or situat ions d. think in terms of abstract principles and hypothetical possibilities ____ 55. The person who objects to war on the basis of higher moral principles and a personal code of ethics would be said to be at which of the following levels of moral development? a. postconventional b. preconventional c. conventional d. unconventional ____ 56. In both males and females, early maturation is associated with a. deterioration of peer relations b. greater risk for eating disorders c. higher levels of moral reasoning d. less self control and emotional stability ____ 57. Which of the following statements regarding personality changes in adulthood is MOST accurate? a. Personality stability depends on one's sex and socioeconomic status. b. The overall personality undergoes systematic changes throughout adulthood. c. Personality remains extremely stable after adolescence. d. The adult personality is characterized by both stability and change. ____ 58. One's sex is __________ determined; one's gender is __________ determined. a. culturally; biologically b. culturally; culturally c. biologically; culturally d. biologically; biologically ____ 59. Starting in the grade-school years, females show a slight advantage over males in __________ skills, while males show a slight advantage over females in __________ skills. a. verbal; visual-spatial b. mathematical; v erbal c. visual-spatial; mathematical d. mathematical; visual-spatial ____ 60. In relation to age, which of the following does NOT belong with the others? a. development of secondary sex characteristics b. autonomy versus shame c. formal operations d. postconventional moral reasoning ____ 61. Patrick ate a large breakfast. When he arrived for his 8:00 a.m. class the student next to him offered Patrick a large raisin muffin. Even though Patrick was sti ll quite full from breakfast, he ate the muffin that he was offered. In this instance, Patrick's behavior can best be explained using a. drive theories of motivation b. instinctive theories of motivation c. incentive theories of motivation d. the self-awareness theory of motivation ____ 62. Psychologists who take an evolutionary view argue that natural selection favors behaviors that maximize an individual's a. self-actualization b. acquisition of territory c. reproductive success d. material wealth ____ 63. According to the results of the Featured Study on culture and mating preferences, which of the following characteristics in a potential mate is likely to be rated more highly by women than by men? a. status b. kindness c. youthfulness d. physical attractiveness ____ 64. Recent studies suggest that __________ of the population could reasonably be characterized as homosexual. a. less than 1 percent b. approximately 8 percent c. between 12 and 15 percent d. just over 18 percent ____ 65. Sean and his wife have been kissing and caressing for about 15 minutes. His level of arousal is still increasing, and he has begun to secrete some seminal fluid from the tip of his penis. Based on the phases described by Ma sters and Johnson, Sean is in the a. plateau phase b. excitement phase c. orgasmic phase d. resolution phase ____ 66. Alayna and her husband have been kissing and caressing for about 15 minutes. Her level of arousal is still increasing, and she can feel some tightening in her vagina. Based on the phases described by Masters and Johnson, Alayna is in the a. resolution phase b. plateau phase c. excitement phase d. orgasmic phase ____ 67. Which of the following best describes the refractory period? a. the time between orgasms in multiorgasmic women b. a time following female orgasm during which females are largely unresponsive to further stimulation c. a time following male orgasm during which males are largely unresponsive to further stimulation d. the time between initiation of intercourse and orgasm ____ 68. Stefan is an individual who has a high need for achievement. His boss has three jobs that need to be completed; one job is easy, one job is moderately difficult, and one job is extremely difficult. If Stefan is allowed to choose which of the three jobs he will undertake for his boss, you would expect that Stefan will a. maximize the t ask difficulty by selecting the hardest job b. choose the easy job, to maximize his chance for success c. choose the moderately difficult job d. ask his boss to make the choice, to avoid a potentially negative evaluation ____ 69. Cyndi is an individual who has a high need for achievement. She is trying to decide which one of four possible courses she should take as her final elective course for her degree. One of the courses is supposed to be an easy course, with an "A" practicall y guaranteed for very little effort; one course is supposed to be moderately difficult, but with effort an "A" is possible; one course is supposed to be a "killer" course with little chance of earning a grade higher than a "B"; the fourth course is a semin a r-style course with no grades assigned. You should expect that Cyndi will choose a. the course that has no assigned grades b. the moderately difficult course that requires effort for a high grade c. the easy course which practically guarantees a high gra de d. the "killer" course to maximize her level of task difficulty ____ 70. Lauren and Curtis both spend six hours per week studying for their botany course. Lauren is concerned that if she doesn't study she will fail the course; Curtis is concerned that if he doesn't study he won't earn the highest grade in the class. In this example a. Lauren is motivated by a fear of failure, and Curtis is motivated by a need for achievement b. both students are motivated by a fear of failure c. Curt is is motivated by a fear of failure, and Lauren is motivated by a need for achievement d. both students are motivated by a need for achievement ____ 71. Paola is about to give a speech in front of a roomful of strangers. As he steps up to the podium he feels anxious and nervous. This reaction is part of the a. physiological component in Paola's emotional experience b. behavioral component in Paola's emotional experience c. objective component in Paola's emotional experience d. cognitive component in Paola's emotional experience ____ 72. Victoria is extremely upset because she has been falsely accused of stealing money from her employer. Her lawyer has suggested that Victoria take a polygraph test to prove her innocence. She a sks you whether she should agree to the test. Based on the research into the accuracy of polygraphs, you should tell Victoria that polygraphs a. are extremely accurate, and if Victoria is truly innocent she will pass with no problem b. only measure overal l arousal levels and are not reliable indicators of whether or not people are lying c. sometimes wrongly indicate that innocent people are guilty, but are 100% accurate in detecting guilt d. sometimes wrongly indicate that guilty people are innocent, but are 100% accurate in detecting innocence ____ 73. When the strikers learned that their union's latest offer had been turned down by management, Roger was annoyed, Sylvester was angry, and C lyde was enraged. Robert Plutnik would suggest that these three men were a. experiencing different unique secondary emotions b. experiencing different unique primary emotions c. experiencing different intensities of the same primary emotion d. each labeling their emotions differently due to differences in experience ____ 74. __________ involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships. a. Attribution b. Individualism c. Collectivism d. Socialism ____ 75. A __________ creates an either-or choice between two outcomes. a. a weak analogy b. a false dichotomy c. circular argument d. slippery slope
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