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Studies the effects of media in carefully controlled situationsthat manipulate media exposure and content.
A demographically diverse group of peopleassembled to participate in a guided discussion about a particular productbefore it is launched, or to provide ongoing feedback on a political campaign,television series, etc.
The causes of media effects.
An action or occurrence can cause another (such as smoking causes lungcancer), or it can correlate withanother (such as smoking is correlated with alcoholism). If one action causesanother, then they are most certainly correlated. But just because two thingsoccur together does not mean that one caused the other, even if it seems tomake sense.
Thedegree to which research procedures and samples may be generalized to the realworld.
The degreeto which we are actually measuring what we intend to measure.
Anaturalistic research method in which the observer obtains detailed informationfrom personal observation or interviews over extended periods of time.
A type of communicationtheory (e.g., social learning theory, vicarious catharsis theory) that regardsmedia as having conditional influences on the viewer: due to interveningvariables, the effects of media on the viewer are limited.
An individuals’ tendency to favor information thatreinforces pre-existing views while avoiding information that contradicts theirviews.
An approach to understanding why people actively seek outspecific media outlets and content for gratification purposes. The theorydiscusses how users proactively search for media that will not only meet agiven need but enhance knowledge, social interactions and diversion.
Although we learn by our own trialand error, we also perform much learning by watching other people. It is, afterall, safer to let others make the mistakes. When the behavior makes sense, wego through it in our minds then try it for ourselves.
A series of studies of the effect of movies onchildren's behavior. They were paid for by The Payne Fund, a private foundation. They have been criticizedas lacking scientific rigor but were the first attempt to rigorously study themedia. They were politically significant and were instrumental in theenforcement of the Hays Code. They are credited with contributing to the demiseof Pre-Code film-makingin Hollywood.
A model that assumes that media effects are indirect and aremediated by opinion leaders.
A theory in which the activation ofone thought may trigger related thoughts. The priming theory states that mediaimages stimulate related thoughts in the minds of audience members. For example, if a person were to see a cartoon character play atrick that inflicts pain on another character, it could make that person morelikely to repeat the violent action in real life.
Refers to material where thedominant theme take as a whole appeals to prurient, or sexually arousing,interest.
PresidentReagan set up the Commission to reverse the findings of the 1970 report onpornography released under Richard Nixon, which recommended that legislation“should not seek to interfere with the right of adults to read, obtain or viewexplicit sexual materials.”
“Exposure to sexualcontent on TV was found to be related to pregnancy rates during a study thatfollowed a national sample of teens over three years.”
Experimental studiesshow that when males are exposed to explicit pornography, they are more likelyto express negative attitudes toward women.
A schema is a cognitive framework or concept thathelps organize and interpret information. Schemas can be useful, because theyallow us to take shortcuts in interpreting a vast amount of information.However, these mental frameworks also cause us to exclude pertinent informationin favor of information that confirms our pre-existing beliefs and ideas.Schemas can contribute to stereotypes and make it difficult to retain newinformation that does not conform to our established schemas.
Stereotypes Arabs andMuslims as terrorists.
A type of survey, questionnaire,or poll in which respondents read the question and select a response bythemselves without researcher interference. A self-report is any method whichinvolves asking a participant about their feelings, attitudes, and beliefs andso on. Examples of self-reports are questionnaires and interviews; self-reportsare often used as a way of gaining participants responses in observationalstudies and experiments.
More sex on TV, more likely you are tohave sex.
Negative correlationbetween TV and grades only after 10hours/week of viewing
A difference engine is anautomatic, mechanical calculator designedto tabulate polynomial functions. The name derives from the method of divided differences, a way to interpolateor tabulate functions by using a small set of polynomial coefficients. Both logarithmic and trigonometric functions, functionscommonly used by both navigators and scientists, can be approximated by polynomials, so a difference engine can computemany useful sets of numbers.
ElectronicNumerical Integrator and Calculator.
Breaks up digital information into individually addressed chunks,or packets.
A network where a central server controls services andinformation; the server is maintained by one or more individuals called networkadministrators. On a centralized network that uses NIS, this server is calledthe NIS master, and all other systems on the network are called NIS clients.
A type of network whichis inherently decentralized by nature and consists mainly of nodes which arenot constantly a part of the network. They are able to join or leave at anytime at any place in the network.
A distributed network is a type of computernetwork that is spread over various different networks. This provides a singledata communication network, which can be managed jointly or separately by eachnetwork. Besides shared communication within the network, a distributed networkoften also distributes processing.
Moore's law is a rule of thumb in the history of computing hardware whereby the number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years. Processing capability doubles every 18 months.
Metcalfe'sLaw is often cited as an explanation for the rapid growth of the Internet (orperhaps more especially for the World Wide Web on the Internet). Together, with Moore's Law about the rate at which computer poweris accelerating, Metcalfe's Law can be used to explain the rising wave ofinformation technology that we are riding into the 21st century.
Hyperlinks between webpages began with the release of the WWW tothe public in 1993, and describethe Web before the "bursting of the Dot-com bubble" in 2001. Since 2004, Web 2.0 has been the term used to describe social web, especially the current business models ofsites on the World Wide Web.
The Communications Decency Act (or CDA) of 1996 was the first real attemptby the U.S. Congress to get involved in the regulation and censoring ofpornographic or obscene material. The Act was Title V of an omnibus bill calledthe Telecommunications Act of 1996. The CDA was first introduced to the SenateCommittee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation by James Exon, a Democratfrom Nebraska, and Slade Gorton, a Republican from Washington.
A principle that advocates no restrictions by Internet service providers or governments on consumers' access to networks thatparticipate in the Internet. Specifically,network neutrality would prevent restrictions on content, sites, platforms,types of equipment that may be attached, and modes of communication.
An eminent scientist, inventor, engineer andinnovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.
An American electrical engineer whoco-founded the Western Electric ManufacturingCompany. Gray is best known for his development of a telephone prototype in 1876 in Highland Park, Illinois and is considered by some writers to be the true inventor of thevariable resistance telephone, despite losing out to Alexander Graham Bell forthe telephone patent.
A mobile advertising company basedin the United States.It was acquired by AOL on May 14, 2007.
In 1983 cellular radio service wasintroduced in the US, expanding the capacity of mobile telephone networks. Thesecond-generation digital phones introduced in 1995 began the trend towardssmartphones.
Whena company with the same owner handles different aspects of a business withinthe same industry, such as phone manufacturing and phone service.
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