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The Deformation of the Earth's Crust
Tension. Plates Pulled Apart.
Compression: Plates Forced Together.
Shear. Plates slide next to eachother.
The bending of the Earth's Crust (rocks intensely compressed by convergence)
The breaking of the Earth's crust
Faulting + Tension
Normal Fault (Tension Fault)
angled fault, crust lengthens.
bottom of valley in an angled fault (downward-faulted blocks)
top of mountain ranges in angled fault (upward-faulted blocks)
cliff formed by faulting
Faulting + Compression
Reverse Fault (Compression Fault): rocks move upward (opposite of Normal Fault).
Overthrust Fault: if fault plane forms low angle relative to horizontal, overlying block shifts far over the underlying block.
Faulting + Shear
Strike-Slip Fault (Transform Fault): Horizontal shifting. (why mountain ranges/rivers aren't usually in a straight, unbroken line).
the trough of a fold, where the layers slope downwards toward the axis
the ridge of the fold, where the layers slope downward away from the axis
erodes more easily (cracks stretched out, more vulnerable to water erosion)
anticlinal valley & synclinal ridge
post-erosion of folding: relief inversion
one side folded, other side eroded. cuesta erodes back, harder pieces are left behind.
butte: pointier non-eroded piece
mesa: flat non-eroded piece
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