Authorized president to reorganize the Federal Government to create new agencies.
This act allowed the president to allocate goods, control prices, sell war bonds, censor news, curtail civil liberties, seize foreign owned land and wiretap at his/her discretion
War Production Board
Helped factories make the transition from peace-based goods to weaponry, including on farms, where production doubled
How did citizens help the war effort? (List 3)
Collected scrap metal
During the war, the number of women in the work force ______
How many women served in the female divisions of the armed forces?
Though segregated, more than ______ blacks fought during WWII
African American soldiers marked the beginning of the modern _____
civil rights movement
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Publicly challenged segregation
A. Phillip Randolph
Civil rights activist, started the "Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Quarters." Fought for jobs and equality, convinced FDR to sign Executive Order 8802, abolishing segregation in the war efforts
Native American involvement in the war
Very patriotic, supported the war more than any other minority group. 1/3 of Indians served the war effort. Native American code talkers were used to encrypt messages. The code was never broken by the enemy.
Agreement between the US and Mexico that allowed documented workers from Mexico to be allowed to work agricultural jobs
Caused racial tensions, resulting in the Zoot Suit Riots
Zoot Suit Riots
Riots break out in LA due to racial tensions against Latinos. Hundreds of whites ran through LA and assaulted Latinos. Zoot Suits were made illegal.
Executive Order 9066
Japanese American relocation to internment camps, despite being found loyal to the US. 100,000 were removed from the West Coast. Hawaii was not affected. Over 60% were citizens of America
Korematsu vs. United States
Supreme Court confirmed constitutionality of the order
1988 - Reagan apologized for the internment and paid the families $20,000
How many nations were involved in WWII? How many Americans lost their lives?
52 nations. 400,000 Americans were killed.
June 6, 1944
Faced with heavy fire, US, French and British troops invaded the shores of France. The allies were able to free France. By September, Belgium was free.
What year did FDR die?
Who was blamed for the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagisaki?
George Kennan writes a letter from Moscow explaining that the Soviets are inherently insecure due to their history of being attacked. As a consequence, they will seek expansion. His message to the US: Contain the Soviets
Created the standard of intervention to fight communism
Proposed by Sec. of State George Marshall, provided relief to Euro countries after WWII. The ideology that recipients of US aid would reject communism. It was successful but expensive, eating up 12% of the federal budget in its first year. Caused tensions between US and USSR.
NATO: What is it?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Conglomeration of 10 Euro countries and the US. Mutual defense pact: attack any country that attacks them.
FDR wanted Russians to accept the US as an ally over Japan and wanted to create a new world security organization, later defined as the UN
Written by Paul Nitze, wrote that Russia was intent on inflicting communist policy on the rest of the world. Wrote that the key to defeating the USSR was massive spending: massive development, military growth, covert operations, support of developing countries, manufacture of powerful bombs.
North Korea invades South Korea (Year)
Ratified in 1951, limited presidents to 2 terms, effort was Republican-led
Reforms the Wagner Act: disallowed boycotts, allowed the president to call for a "cooling off period" of 80 days during strikes if they interfere with national security. Called for oaths of non-communism
Truman's Minimum Wage Raise: The Numbers
Raised the minimum wage from 40 cents to 70 cents an hour
The Second Red Scare
Raids, spies and suspicion causes the Executive Order 9835. EO 9835 established a loyalty program that questioned the communism of citizens. Thousands of suspects fired or forced to resign.
Required communist orgs to register with the government and allowed for "communists" to be deported. Homosexuals barred from becoming citizens.
House Un-American Activities Committee. Held public hearings questioning actors on the Communist party. Those who were unwilling to testify were blacklisted from the movie industry.
Named as a communist spy, proved by the "pumpkin papers." Convicted of perjury. Accused in 1948, convicted 1950.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Married NY couple, accused of giving nuclear info to Soviets. Sentenced to death in 1953.
Senator Joseph McCarthy
Lied about knowing a mass amount of communists in the State Department. Found to be a hoax. Battled alcoholism and died after being censored by the senate in 1954.
Foreign Policy, headed by Sec. of State John Foster Dulles, who believed that we not only needed to contain communism, but also need to roll it back, build up nuclear arsenal by multiples. Instated by Eisenhower. Opened up dialogue with Khrushchev which eased tensions and agreed to a unilateral halt to nuclear testing
U2 plane was shot down and Gary Powers, the pilot, gave the Soviets all his secrets. In 1962, the Soviets traded powers for a Soviet spy. After being released, he flew a helicopter for an LA news company.
Americans shocked by space travel, Ike criticized for lack of US technological edge. Gave rise to NASA and the National Defense Education Act
Because wars were over, many people were married and reproduced, increasing the US population from 1945 to 1960 by 30%
The 1950's Family (3 traits)
Nuclear, return to domesticity, female role as homemaker
1950's Migration to the Suburbs: 6 Causes
More cars, more homes in suburbs, availability of affordable mortgages, Highway Act, drive in movies and drive in restaurants
Planned community in NY, developed identical houses ("little boxes on the hillside")
Racist: blacks not allowed
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