Terms: Insect Biology Exam #1
Last Modified: 2012-10-26
a representation of a phylogeny where evolutionary relatedness is shown by both branching order and a distance measure
-segmented bodies with paired, jointed appendages
-exoskeleton composed of chitin
-complete digestive tract
-closed circulatory system
-ventral nervous system
- like earthworm, leeches, tubifex worms
- Paleozoic marine fossils
- 3 tagmata (lobes): head, thorax, abdomen
- Had antennae, compound eyes, and biramous appendages
- No antennae
- 2 tagmata = Cephalothorax & abdomen
- Chelicerae = fangs or mouth parts (feeding)
- Pedipalps = 2nd pair of appendages
- Class Merostomata=Horseshoe crabs
- Class Pycnogonida=Sea Spiders
- Class Arachnida=Arachnids
- Head bears 5 pairs of appendages, 2 of which are antennae
- fusion of head and thorax into cephalothorax
- biramous appendages; chewing mouthparts
- 2 pairs of antenna; 3 or more pairs of legs
- antennal glands for excretion
- marine and freshwater
o Most numerous group of arthropods
o Jaws are mandibles
o Three tagmata (head, thorax, and abdomen)
o One pair of antenna
3 pairs of legs
o May have wings (only flying arthropods)
o Breath using trachea that open to spiracles
- have appendages (mandibles) on 3rd head segment that are modified for feeding
- Class Myriapoda
- Class Insecta
- Class Crustacea
- Subphylum in Arthropoda
- Unbranced appendages
- One pair of antennae
- Includes insects, centipedes, millipedes
- claw-like head appendages on certain anthropods such as arachnids
- usually modified as pincer-like claws
- Formation zone
- Dermal Gland
- Cement level (Uppermost Epicuticle)
-separated by conjunctivae and sutures
in the mesothorax.
large fan-like indentations important for flying insects
include areas for muscle attachment.
- calcified layer: inflexible
- Hardens the outermost layer of an arthropod's body
- AKA "Tanning" (formation of cross links between chitin protein molecules) forming hard cuticle
A type of metamorphosis in which the animal increases in size from one stage to the next, but does not dramatically change its body form. Also called incomplete metamorphosis.
prevents loss of water. also important in resistance of invasion by pathogens.
protects wax layer from being scratched or lost by absorption onto foreign objects.
- Built up of stenites and tergites
- contains the insect's digestive tract and reproductive organs, it consists of eleven segments in most orders of insects
- pleural membrane
points of invagination of the integument to form the anterior arms of the tentorium
Mandibles - jaws
Maxillae - handle food
Labium - lower lip
where the salivary duct opens up
fusion of sternal and pleural apophyses
Subcosta (Sc) – second longitudinal vein (behind the costa), typically unbranched
Radius (R) – third longitudinal vein, one to five branches reach the wing margin
Media (M) – fourth longitudinal vein, one to four branches reach the wing margin
Cubitus (Cu) – fifth longitudinal vein, one to three branches reach the wing margin
Anal veins (A1, A2, A3) – unbranched veins behind the cubitus
R cross-veins - run between adjacent branches of the radius
R-M cross-veins - run between the radius and media
M-Cu cross-veins - run between the media and cubitus
secretory appendages on the end of the abdomen
lined by thin cuticular intima that is continous with cuticle of exoskeleton
intima is shed with exuvieae after moulting
thin wire of cuticle called taenidia goes spirally through the intima and gives tracheal tubes the abilitiy to flex and stretch without restricting air flow
diffusion. relies on high partial pressure and concentration of oxygen in atmosphere. passageway carries air from environment and delivers oxygen to cells
-aquatic insects modify this system for water. water scorpion has a snorkel and water beetles use air bubbles. hold air bubble underwater and oxygen diffuses into bubble from surrounding water.
- spiracles absent,
- tracheae form an internal network,
- gas exchange via cutaneous diffusion,
- some aquatic species and many endoparasitic larvae utilize this method.
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