Tyler Castille 1 Terms for International Relations World Politics Text Chapter 1: Interpreting World Politics The Impact of Perceptions on World Politics Mirror Images- The tendency of states and people in competitive interaction to perceive each other similarly?to see others the same hostile way others see them. Enduring Rivalries- Prolonged competition fueled by deep-seated mutual hatred that leads opposed actors to feud and fight over a long period of time without resolution of their conflict. Keys to Understanding World Politics Actor- An individual, group, state or organization that plays a major role in world politics. State Sovereignty- A state?s supreme authority to manage internal affairs and foreign relations. State- An independent legal entity with a government exercising exclusive control over the territory and population it governs. Nation- A collectivity whose people see themselves as members of the same group because they share the same ethnicity, culture, or language. Foreign Policy- The decisions governing authorities make to realize international goals. Monad- A conception of foreign policy that the political actor?s foreign policy is undifferentiated to the target, and that it acts under a presupposed generalized characteristic. Directed Dyadic- A perception of foreign policy in which the actor?s foreign policy refers to specific goals with respect to another actor or target in particular. International Relations- Relationships that exist between pairs or among groups of global actors. Summed Dyads- The dyadic relationships between various actors that are based upon their foreign policies and toward each other and that acts that are a result of those relationships. Politics- To Harold Lasswell, the study of ?who gets what, when, how, and why.? International Politics- The study of how global actors? activities entail the exercise of influence to achieve and defend their goals and ideals, and how it affects the world at large. Levels of Analysis- The different aspects of and agents in international affairs that may be stressed in interpreting and explaining global phenomena, depending on whether the analysis chooses to focus on ?wholes? (the complete global system and large collectivities) or on ?parts? (individual states or people). Individual Levels of Analysis- An analytical approach that emphasizes the psychological and perceptual variables motivating people, such as those who make foreign policy decisions on behalf of states and global actors. State Level of Analysis- An analytical approach that emphasizes how the internal attributes of states influence their foreign policy behaviors. Global Level of Analysis- Analyses that emphasize the impact of worldwide conditions on foreign policy behavior and human welfare. Transformation- A change in the characteristic pattern of interaction among the most active participants in world politics of such magnitude that it appears that one ?global system? has replaced another. Global System- The predominant patterns of behaviors and beliefs that prevail internationally to define the major worldwide conditions that heavily influence human and national activities. Anarchy- A condition in which the units in the global system are subjected to few if any overarching institutions to regulate their conduct. Cycles- The periodic reemergence of conditions similar to those that existed previously. Great Powers- The most powerful countries, militarily and economically, in the global system. Chapter 2: Theories of World Politics Theories and Change in World Politics Theory- A set of hypotheses postulating the relationship between variables or conditions advanced to describe, explain, or predict phenomena and make prescriptions about how positive changes ought to be engineered to realize particular goals and ethical principles. Paradigm- Derived from the Greek paradigm, meaning an example, a model, or an essential pattern; a paradigm structures thought about an area of inquiry. Realist Theory Realism- A paradigm based on the premise that world politics is essentially and unchangeable a struggle among self-interested states for power and position under anarchy, with each competing state pursuing its own national interests. Power- The factors that enable one actor to manipulate another actor?s behavior against its preferences. Self-Help- The principle that because in international anarchy all global actors are independent, they must rely on themselves to provide for their security and well-being. Relative Gains- Conditions in which some participants in cooperative interactions benefit more than others. National Interest- The goals that states pursue to maximize what they perceive to be selfishly best for their country. Balance of Power- The theory that peace and stability are most likely to be maintained when military power is distributed to prevent a single superpower hegemon or bloc from controlling the world. Neorealism- A theoretical account of states? behavior that explains it as determined by differences in their relative power within the global hierarchy, defined primarily by the distribution of military power, instead of by other factors such as their values, types of government, or domestic circumstances. Structural Realism- The neorealist theory postulating that the structure of the global system determines the behavior of transnational actors within it. Liberal Theory Liberalism- been called the ?strongest contemporary challenge to realism.? A paradigm predicated on the hope that the application of reason and universal ethics to international relations can lead to a more orderly, just, and cooperative world; liberalism assumes that anarchy and war can be policed by institutional reforms that empower international organization and law. Zero Sum- An exchange in a purely conflictual relationship in which what is gained by one competitor is lost by the other. Collective Security- A security regime agreed to by the great powers that sets rules for keeping peace, guided by the principle that an act of aggression by any state will be met by a collective response from the rest. I.e. League of Nations. Transnational Relations- Interactions across state boundaries that involve at least one actor that is not the agent of a government or intergovernmental organization. Complex Interdependence- A model of world politics based on the assumptions that states are not the only important actors, security is not the dominant national goal, and military force is not the only significant instrument of foreign policy; this theory stressed cross-cutting ways in which the growing ties among transnational actors make them vulnerable to each other?s actions and sensitive to each other?s needs. International Regime- A concept constructed to explain the benefits to actors supporting particular rules to regulate a specific international problem, such as disposal of toxic wastes. Neoliberalism- The ?new? liberal theoretical perspective that accounts for the way international institutions promote global change, cooperation, peace, and prosperity through collective programs for reforms. Absolute Gains- Conditions in which all participants in exchanges become better off. Regimes- The rules agreed upon by states to work together to manage shared problems, because long term benefits to all are expected even though short-term relative losses may be encountered. Low Politics- The category of global issues related to the economic, social, demographic, and environmental aspects of relations between governments and people. High Politics- Geostrategic issues of national and international security that pertain to matters of war and peace. Constructivist Theory Consequentialism- An approach to evaluating moral choices on the basis of the results of the action taken Constructivist Theory- A Theoretical approach advocated by Alexander Wendt that sees self-interested states as the key actors in world politics; their actions are determined not by anarchy but by the ways that states socially construct and then accept images of reality and later respond to the meanings given to power politics; as consensual definitions change, it is possible for either conflictual or cooperative practices to evolve. Norms- Generalized standards of behavior that, once accepted, shape collective expectations about appropriate conduct. The Radical Critique Dependency Theory- A theory hypothesizing that less developed countries are exploited because global capitalism makes them dependent on the rich countries that create exploitive rules for trade and production. World System Theory- A body of theory that treats the capitalist world economy originating in the 16th century as an interconnected unit of analysis encompassing the entire globe, with an international division of labor and multiple political centers and cultures, whose rules constrain and share the behavior of all transnational actors. The Feminist Critique Feminist Theory- Body of scholarship that emphasizes gender in the study of world politics. Theorizing About Theory Deconstructivism- The postmodern theory that the complexity of the world system renders precise description impossible and that the purpose of scholarship is to understand actors? hidden motives by deconstructing their textual statements. Behavioralism- The methodological research movement to incorporate rigorous scientific analysis into the study of world politics so that conclusions about patterns are based on measurement, data, and evidence rather than on speculation and subjective belief. Hypotheses- Speculative statements about the probable relationship between independent variables (the presumed causes) and a dependent variable (the effect). Epistemology- The philosophical examination of the way in which knowledge is acquired and the analytic principles governing the study of phenomena. Chapter 3: International Decision Making Foreign Policy-Making In International Affairs Counterfactual Reasoning- Speculations about historical events and developments that ask how the world might have changed had certain momentous foreign policy choices not been taken or had other conditions prevailed by inquiring ?what would have happened if?? Decision Making By Transnational Actors Unitary Actor- A transnational actor (usually a sovereign state) assumed to be internally united, so that changes in its domestic opinion do not influence its foreign policy as much as do the decisions that actor?s leaders make to cope with changes in its global environment. Rational Choice- Decision-making procedures guided by careful definition of situations, weighing of goals, consideration of all alternatives, and selection of the options most likely to achieve the highest goals. Bounded Rationality- The concept that decision maker?s capacity to choose the best option is often constrained by many human and organizational obstacles. Game Theory- An approach to the analysis of making rational decisions based on observation of how opposing players with conflicting interests react to the kinds of situations such as in business or military strategy to calculate gains and losses in order to achieve desired outcomes. Opportunity Costs- The kinds of sacrifices that sometimes result when the decision to select one option means that the opportunity to realize gains from other options is lost. Externalities- The negative side effects that result from choices, such as inflation resulting from runaway government spending. Policy Agenda- The changing list of problems or issues to which governments pay special attention at any given moment. Satisficing- The tendency for decision makers to choose the first satisfactory option rather than searching further for a better alternative. Prospect Theory- The social psychological theory that international decision making is constrained by formed opinions and tendencies to overreact in crises, that decisions tend to be made based on the perceived prospects of choices to fulfill objectives, and that for policy makers, a crucial consideration in taking risks is the perceived prospects for avoiding losses and realizing big gains. Two Level Games- A concept referring to the growing need for national policy makers to make decisions that will meet both domestic and foreign goals. Muddling Through- The tendency for leaders to make foreign policy decisions by trial-and-error adjustments in an attempt to cope with challenges. Bureaucracies- The agencies and departments that conduct the functions of a central government or of a nonstate transitional actor. Multiple Advocacy- The concept that better and more rational choices are made when decisions are reached in a group context, which allows advocates of differing alternatives to be heard so that the feasibility of rival options receives critical evaluation. Bureaucratic Politics Model- A description of decision making that sees foreign policy choices as based on bargaining and compromises among competing government agencies. Policy Networks- Leaders and organized interests (such as lobbies) that form temporary alliances to influence a particular foreign policy decision. Caucuses- Informal groups that individuals in governments and other groups join to promote their common interests. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPS)- Rules for reaching decisions about particular types of situations. Groupthink- The propensity for members of a group to accept and agree with the group?s prevailing attitudes rather than speaking out for what they believe. History Making Individuals Model- An interpretation that sees foreign policy decisions that affect the course of history as products of strong willed leaders acting on their personal convictions. Bush Doctrine- The unilateral policies of the George W. Bush administration proclaiming that the United States will make decisions only to meet America?s perceived national interests, not to concede to other countries? complaints or to gain their acceptance. Roles- The constraints written into law or custom that predispose decision makers in a particular governmental position to act in a manner and style that is consistent with expectations about how the role is normally performed. Instrumental Rationality- A conceptualization of rationality that emphasizes the tendency of decision makers to compare options with those previously considered and then select the one that has the best chance of success. Political Efficacy- The extent to which policy makers? self-confidence instills in them the belief that they can effectively make rational choices. Zeitgeist- The ?spirit of the times,? or the dominant cultural norms assumed to influenece the behavior of people living in particular periods. The Global & Domestic Determinants of States? International Decisions States? Attributes- State characteristics that shape foreign policy behavior, such as its size, wealth, and to the extent which its leaders are accountable to its citizens in comparison with other states. Polarity- The degree to which military and economic capabilities are concentrated in the global system that determines the number of centers of power, or ?poles.? Polarization- The formation of competing coalitions or blocs composed of allies that align with one of the major competing poles, or centers, of power. Geopolitics- The theoretical postulate that states? foreign policies are determined by their location, natural resources, and physical environment. Constitutional Democracy- Government processes that allow people, through their elected representatives, to exercise power and influence the state?s policies. Autocratic Rule- A system of authoritarian or totalitarian government in which unlimited power is concentrated in a single leader. Diversionary Theory of War- The hypothesis that leaders sometimes initiate conflict abroad as a way of increasing national cohesion at home by diverting national public opinion away from contriversal domestic issues and internal problems. Democratic Peace- The theory that although democratic states sometimes wage wars against nondemocratic states, they do not fight one another.
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