(# of valence electrons) - (# of electrons on atom)
Qualities of the best contributor
- will have the most bonds
- will have the least amount of charges. But if there are charges, the negative charge will be on the most electronegative atom while the positive charge will be on the least electronegative atom.
6 rules for creating orbitals
1.) If you start with n orbitals, you must produce n orbitals. 2.) Keep it simple. 3.) The closer in energy the two orbitals are, the more strongly they interact. 4) When two orbitals interact in a bonding way, the energy is lowered. When in an antibonding way, the energy is increased. 5) With n orbitals interacting, there are n ways for mixing. 6) The more nodes, the higher in energy
electron pair donor
electron pair acceptor
Proton (H+) acceptor
Proton (H+) donor
Lover of a nucleus; electron pair donor; lewis base; electron rich
electron lover; electron pair acceptor; lewis acid
Alkene or ring formula
an atom or group branched off from the parent chain
The same molecule, just rotated
2 or more compounds with the same molecular formula but differ in the connectivity of their atoms and therefore have different functions and uses
staggered; lower energy
eclipsed; higher energy
A staggered conformation where major groups are 180º apart from each other; this has a lower energy than the other option
A staggered conformation where major groups are 60º apart from each other; this has a higher energy than the other option
a positively charged carbon that's bonded to one other carbon. Not very stable
A positively charged carbon that's bonded to 2 other carbons
A positively charged carbon that's bonded to 3 other carbons
-The functional R group or a chain of CH atoms like methyl or ethyl
Uses the stem + -yl
Ex: ethyl, methyl.
What is this group called?
What are the only prefixes that are considered when alphabetically naming molecules?
iso and neo
In an acid base reaction, do electrons go from a nucleophile go to an electrophile or vice versa?
Electrons go from the nucleophile to the electrophile.
What orbitals do you have when you have sp3?
sp3, sp3, sp3, sp3
What orbitals do you have when you have sp2?
sp2, sp2, sp2, p
What orbitals do you have when you have sp?
sp, sp, p, and p
What geometry do you have with sp3? What is the bond angle?
What geometry do you have when you have sp2? What is the bond angle?
Trigonal planar; 120º
What geometry do you have when you have an sp? What is the bond angle?
When the alkene is attached to one other carbon, thus giving 1 C--C bond
When the alkene is attached to two other carbons, thus giving 2 C--C bonds
When the alkene is attached to 3 other carbons, thus giving 3 C--C bond
When the alkene is attached to 4 other carbons, thus giving 4 C--C bond
The functional group -CHCH2
Same group on the same side
Same groups, opposite sides
Biggest groups are on opposite sides
Biggest groups are on same side
Index of hydrogen deficiency
Sum of bonds and/or rings
IHD= #C + 1 - 1/2(H + Hal - N)
When a chiral center rotates to the right
When a chiral center rotates to the left
Stereocenter/ chiral center/ stereogenic center
A carbon with 4 different substituents
Stereoisomers that are nonsuperimposable mirror images
stereoisomers that are not mirror images, are not superimposable, and really don't have the same structure at all
A molecule with multiple stereocenters that are superimposable on its mirror image.
What this means is that if you take the compound and chop it in half, you'll get two mirror images of each other
Taking a tetrahedral carbon and flattening it out
When the groups of a cyclohexane stick out to the side; when the bigger groups are here, it's more stable
When groups of a cyclohexane stick out from the top and the bottom; the least bulky groups are likely to be here
-there's only 1 chiral center
-there's no plane of symmetry
-when you create the mirror image, you do not get the same image. No matter how you turn it, they are not the same.
Either-there is a plane of symmetry - you can rotate the mirror image to get the same image
Want to see the other 59 Flashcards in Terms?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!