The disappearance of a species or other taxon from a region or biota
A population's environment changes to its detriment and rate of increase falls to zero. This results in a decline and eventual extinction of the population.
A population fails to solves the 'small population problem'. Effects of chance events can have important and sometimes terminal consequences when numbers are low.
Factors of Extinction (9)
1. Habitat Changes and Fragmentation
2. Loss of Food
3. Introduced Predators
4. Pest Control
5. Poorly Regulated Commercial Hunting
6. Unregulated Recreational Hunting
7. Environmental Contaminants
8. Introduced Diseases
9. Multiple Causes
Advantages of Protected Areas (3)
1. Protect fragile or critical habitats
2. Protect large species that cannot coexist with humans
3. Act as ecological baselines or benchmarks to monitor human disturbance outside.
Disadvantages of Protect Areas (3)
1. Do not represent all ecosystems or communities, often being select for other reasons.
2. They are often too small to maintain viable populations, particularly of species that are adapted to live in large groups or that migrate across international borders.
3. They can alienate local indigenous peoples excluded by central governments.
A strip of habitat that connects two or more large blocks of habitat and that is proposed for conservation on the grounds that it will enhance or maintain the viability of specific wildlife populations in the habitat blocks.
Advantages of Corridors
1. Increase immigration rate to a reserve, which can increase or maintain species richness, populations of particular species and decrease probability of extinction, prevent inbreeding depression and maintain genetic variation. Provide increased foraging for wide-ranging species, predator escape, mix of habitats, refugia from disturbances, limit urban sprawl and provide recreational opportunities.
Disadvantages of Corridors
Increase migration rate which could spread disease, pests, exotics. Decrease genetic variation or lead to 'outbreeding depression', spread fire, increase exposure to hunters and poachers, might not enhance dispersal, cost and conflict with conventional land preservation strategy to preserve endangered species habitat.
A species whose functional role in the community is disproportionately greater than that predicted by its abundance. Its removal has strong effects on community diversity and composition, tend to be top predators in terrestrial systems.
A species is one that is used to attract the attention of the public. This is usually a large, charismatic species.
A species that provides a 'protective umbrella' such that its minimum area requirement is at least as comprehensive as the res of the community. Effective protection of a viable population in this area is assumed to protect populations of other sumpatric members of the same guild.
A species whose characteristics are used as an index of attributes too difficult, inconvenient, or expensive to measure for other species or environmental conditions of interest.
Species that indicate pattern of biodiversity.
Species that indicate environmental changes.
Those that indicate environmental health of the area
Those that indicate changes in populations of other species.
deliberate and mediated movement of wild individuals or populations from one part of their range to another.
addition of individuals to an existing population of conspecifics.
an attempt to establish a species, for the purpose of conservation, outside its recorded distribution but within an appropriate habitat and eco-geographical area. This is feasible only when there is no remaining area left within a species historic range.
Objective of Reintroduction (6)
1. Enhance long-term survival
2. Re-establish a keystone species
3. Maintain and/or restore biodiversity
4. Provide long-term economic benefits to a local and/or national economy
5. Promote conservation awareness
6. Combination of above
Re-introduction Concerns (6)
4. Ecosystem effects
5. Human welfare
6. Animal welfare
Non-domestic animals that exist in urban landscapes.
Effects of Removing Animals
1. Population density decreases
2. Release more resources for the remaining individuals and may provide opportunity for accelerated immigration
3. Disruptions to group hierarchy/dynamics
4. Changes in predator and prey trophic interrelationships
Control and Management Methods (5)
1. Lethal Control
3. Construct Barriers
4. Aversion Techniques
5. Fertility Control
It is an active management technique used to control wildlife populations and reduce population density.
Advantages to Contraception
2. Publicly more acceptable
3. Relatively painless to animal
4. Lack of adverse health risks
5. Effective in some populations
Disadvantage to Contraception
1. Potentially costly
2. Not always practical
3. Lack of proven effectiveness
4. Often require repetition
International Union of Conservation of Nature
Species Survival Commission
total number of individuals of a taxon
number of mature individuals
geographically or otherwise distinct groups in the population between which there is littler demographic or genetic exchange
number of individuals known, estimated or inferred to be capable of reproduction
Average age of parents of the current cohort
Extent of Occurrence (b)
area contained within the shortest continuous imaginary boundary which can be drawn to encompass all the known, inferred or projected sites of present occurrence of a taxon, excluding cases of vagrancy
Area of Occupancy (c)
area within its 'extent of occurrence' which is occupied by a taxon, excluding cases of vagrancy.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
list species most endangered
Lists species not necessarily threatened with extinction
Lists species included at the request of a Party that already regulated trade in the species that needs to cooperation or other countries to prevent unsustainable or illegal exploitation
the variety of types or organisms, habitats, and ecosystems on earth or in a particular place
tropical vegetation is more structurally complex, providing more niches than higher latitudes
ice caps covered large areas of northern North America and Eurasia, and that melted only 10,000 years ago. There has been insufficient time to reinvade these higher latitudes and evolve new species.
Warmer temperatures and higher rainfall or tropical regions allowed species to fir into narrow niches over small areas while still maintain a large enough population to avoid extinction.
higher biodiversity in the tropic included a higher number of predators. These impose top-down regulation on prey, which allows a greater number or prey species to coexist because they are not competing with each other.
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