Political unit whose people share a sense of common identity
System of government in which ultimate authority rests with the regional governments.
System of government in which ultimate authority rests with the national government.
System of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between national and state governments.
Powers expressly granted to Congress by the Constitution
Gives Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper to the powers enumerated in Section 8.
Powers retained by the states under the Constitution.
Authority of the states to protect the health, safety, and welfare of their citizens.
Powers held by both the national and state governments in a federal system.
Right of individuals who have been arrested and jailed to go before a judge who determines if their imprisonment is legal
Provides a federal government guarantee that the states will have a republican form of government.
Prevents the states from denying any person the equal protection of the law.
Makes federal law supreme over state laws
Doctrine by which extensive federal regulation can prevent regulation by the states.
Doctrine holding that states cannot be sued without their permission.
Requires states to accept civil proceedings from over states.
Requires States to treat nonresidents equally to residents
View that the Constitution and the federal government derive from the people, not from the states.
View that the states created the Constitution and the federal government.
View that states have strong independent authority to resist federal rules under the Constitution.
Supreme Court decision upholding the right of Congress to create a bank.
Interpretation of the Constitution that goes beyond the plain meaning of the specific words used.
Supreme Court decision giving broad latitude to Congress under the commerce clause.
Supreme Court decision prohibiting Congress from regulating slavery in the territories.
Limited congressional authority to prohibit private discrimination under the Fourteenth Amendment
Doctrine holding that states and federal governments have almost completely separate functions.
Prohibits discrimination in employment, education, and places of public accommodation.
Givers the federal government the right to prevent discrimination in voting rights.
Shifting of power back to the states beginning with the Nixon administration.
Money from Congress to the states that has to be spent in specific categories.
Money from Congress to the states that could be spent however the states wanted.
Money from Congress to the states that had to be spent in brad, rather than specific, categories.
Campaign proposal containing ten legislative initiatives used by Republicans running for the House of Representatives in 1994.
Congressional requirements on the states to undertake particular activities; states object particularly to unfunded mandates.
Power given to some governors to veto parts of appropriations bills.
One very large bill that encompasses many separate bills, to help ensure passage
Process for selecting state judges whereby the original nomination is by appointment and subsequent retention is by a retention election.
Election in which voters determine whether a state judge,originally appointed under a merit plan, should be retained in the state court system.
Process whereby citizens can remove state official prior to the end of their elected term of office.
Process by which citizens place a proposed law on the ballot for public approval
Process by which public approval is required before states can pass certain laws.
Policies that grant racial or gender preferences in hiring, education, or contracting.
Form of democracy in which political power is exercised directly by citizens.
Set of lobbies that represent the interests of state and local governments.
Process by which policy ideas and programs initiated by one state spread to other states.
Cost of democracy borne by those people in the minority, who on one or more issues live under the rules set by the majority.
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