process and package the macromolecules like proteins and lipids, important in the processing of proteins for secretion
chemical substances that may or may not be in the cell. Ex. stored nutrients, secretory products, pigment granules. glycogen granules in liver and muscle cells, lipid droplets in fat cells, pigment granules in skin and hair
contain degrading enzymes. They digest worn out organelles and engulf viruses. A membrane surrounding a lysosome prevents them from destroying the cell from the inside
cell movement organelle including cell division. produce microtubules
Thin rods and tubules support cytoplasm help move substances and organelles within cytoplasm important in muscle nerves.
group of special cells or cells of similar characteristics, including function.
what are the 5 Types of Tissues
Epithlium- Covers surface Connective- Holds things together (adipose- fat) Muscle- contracts Nervous- conduction Blood and Lymph- fluids for transport
what are Organs made of and use?
made up of several tissues designed for a specific function, most organs have all 5 tissue types
what makes a System
Several organs make a system. Ex. Digestive: mouth teeth esophagus, stomach, intestine. All organs in a system contribute to a common function. Ex. digestive system makes nutrients for body to use
Skeletal- Bones Sensory- Eye, ear Articular- Joints Integument- Skin Muscular- Muscles Digestive- Stomach and intestines Respiratory- Lungs, airways Urinary- Kidneys and bladder Reproductive- Ovaries and Testes Endocrine- Ductless Glands Nervous- Brain, spinal cord, and nerves Circulatory- Heart and Vessels
Epithelial Tissue Funtion
Flat, Ex. Inside Blood vessel
Cube, Ex. ducts of glads (salivary)
Tall and thin Ex. intestine lining in cells
Simple (epithelial) Number of cell layers?
One, Ex. intestine lining
Several layers of thick Ex. Skin
Single layer of ciliated column like cells with nuclei near the base. Contains goblet cells. Functions: move mucus and other substances. Locations: respiratory tract, uterine tubes, uterus, efferent ducts, paranasal sinuses, central canal of spine.
Glands- alveoli or acini
simple cuboidal, mammary glads
Connective Tissue Consist of?
Fibers- Rigid Material- Storage function-
Connective tissue fibers (2 types)
Collagen: will not stretch, strong in direction of fiber. Fibroblasts produce collagen. Elastin: will stretch Ligamentum nuchae
what makes up Rigid material: mineral bone deposits
Osteoblasts Calcium phosphate
what has a Storage Function (connective tissues)
Adipose tissue Calcium for egg shells and milk production stored in bone
Examples of connective tissue?
Bone Cartilage -Hyaline (glass like) -Fibrous -Elastic Fat (adipose) Areolar (loose connective)- between muscles and layers of skin (sub Q) Ligaments- connect bone to bone (ACL) Tendons- Muscle to bone ( achilles tendon)
what are the 3 types of Muscle
Skeletal Smooth Cardiac
Describe Skeletal (muscle)
Striated Multiple peripheral nuclei Voluntary and involuntary control
Describe Smooth (muscle)
walls of digestive tract, blood vessels, urinary Nuclei centrally located Non striated Involuntary Control- autonomic nervous system
Describe Cardiac (muscle)
Striated Central nucleus perkinje fibers Intercalated disks Involuntary control
Cartilage (3 types)
Fibrous Hyaline Elastic
3 things needed for muscle contraction
Action Potential Calcium Energy (ATP)
Describe the organization of contractile proteins in muscle.
Thick and Thin Filament
Composed of hundreds of long contractile myosin molecules arranged in a staggered side by side complex
Composed of a linear array of hundreds of globular, actin monomers in a double helical arrangement.
What is a Sarcomere?
Contractile unit. composed mainly of actin and myosin and extending from Z line to Z line (becomes more narrow w/ contracting) in a myofibril.
bundles of myofilaments.
What is a myofiber?
a single multinucleate muscle containing all the usual cell organelles plus many microfibrils
A muscle is composed of what fiber?
Organized array of muscle fibers
Describe the process of muscle contraction and the steps involved.
AP causes depolarization and release of Ca. Ca exposes myosin binding sites; myosin heads bind to actin. Power stroke filaments slide past one another. ATP binds to myosin causing it to release actin. ATP is hydrolyzed and myosin heads reset. If Ca returns to sarcoplasmic reticulum muscle relaxes. If Ca remains available the cycle repeats and muscle contraction continues.
Describe a Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Ca storage unit and is a modified smooth ER organelle
Describe skeletal muscle actions (3)
Origin: end that does not move Insertion: end which moves Action: Either flex or extend
Cardiac Muscle is?
Striated Single central nucleus Intercalated Disks Purkinje fibers
What are intercalated disks
membrane seperating adjacent cells in cardiac muscle fibers. They support synchronized. Also involved in cell to cell fiber to fiber communication.
Specialized myocardial fibers that conduct electrical nerve impulses. Ex. allow the fibers farther away from the AP to contract before the closer ones.
Describe Smooth Muscle.
Non-striated Single central nucleus Make up walls of hollow structures (blood vessels, digestive tract.)
away from cyton
insulated fatty layer that speeds transmission
they make the myolin
node of ranvier
allow the action impulse to go quicker.
CNS PNS ANS
Central Nervous System (brain, spine, thinking reflexes) Peripheral Nervous System (sciatic, optic nerve, cranial nerves, spinal nerves) Autonomic Nervous System (visceral structures, smooth cardiac muscle, and glads) has both CNS and PNS components, both sensory and motor
White matter: areas of the nervous system rich in fat sheathed neural axons /myelin Gray matter: composed of blood vessels and cell bodies (memory) and cytons worse to have damage.
a network of nerves or veins, is like an electrical junction box which distributes wires to different of the house.
What are Erythrocytes
red blood cells that carry O2 and CO2
what are Leukocytes
White blood cells.
Eosinophils- show large red granules in a clear cytoplasm; bilobed nucleus
Neutrophils-have fine reddish granules in a pale pink cytoplasm; nucleus is 3-5
Basophils-have a clear cytoplasm with purplish black granules; nucleus is S or U shped
lymphocytes- a large darkly stained, spherical nucleus occupies most of the cell
Monocytes- usually have a large, darkly stained U or kidney shaped nucleus
platelets (blood clotting)
what is Plasma
fluid part of the unclotted blood, Contains more proteins. clotting factors. EDTA or Heprin
fluid part of clotted blood, lacks most clotting factors,
like plasma but lacks large protein molecules
What are the movement of joints?
Abduction: move away from midline Adduction: move toward the midline Flexion, decrease the the joint angle Extension: reverse of flexion Hyper-extension: Beyond 180 degrees Rotation: twisting around its own axis Pronation: rotation of extremity so that the dorsum it up Supination: plantar or palmer is up
study the picture, We need the lining to be able to move the organ
Ventral cavity (Visceral Organs)
Thorax and Abdomen
Trachea Lungs Heart Esophagus We need negative pressure
glycerol, 2 fatty acids, a polar molecule like choline, and a phosphate
why is cholesterol important in the cell?
fluidity and flexability
why is protein important in the cell?
integral proteins firmly fixed to the cell
What is passive absorption
Osmosis movement of water from low to high solute concentration. Diffusion area of high to low concentration
Define concentration gradient
a gradient for any molecule that has an area of high concentration and an area of low concentration, high to low
charge different on each side of a membrane
spontaneous movement of ions/molecules; No Energy required
passive process in which substances move with the concentration gradient (high --> low) facilitated by carrier proteins
what molecules can more freely across a membrane?
O2, CO2, OH
Isotonic-same concentration of solutes
the pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane.
Molecules move AGAINST the concentration gradient from low to high concentration.
Involves both a carrier molecule and energy
Good for accumulation of drugs within a part of the body
Found on the membranes of most cells however most important on neuron cells. 3 Sodium Ions are pumped out for every 2 Potassium Ions. This creates a positive charge inside the cell. This allows the "nerve cells" to generate electrical impulses.
What is DNA?
a packet of genetic information that appears as an "X" shape prior to cell division
Want to see the other 132 Flashcards in Test 1 Friday Feb. 8th?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!