Silver and Gold: the Populist Revolt Against Industrialism 1. ?the Rectangle of Righteousness?? Kansas Very conservative Populism 1890?s: The farmers movement ? farmers who are worried about industrialism and big business ? worried about the exploitation of the ?common man? ? they feel that they are becoming less important Populist movement was as important as unionization The rural resistance 2. ?Agrarian America? Before industrialism, America was mostly rural ?Jeffersonian agrarianism? ? farmers as ideal citizens independent, hard working, self reliant, sons of pioneers ?those who till the soil are the republics most virtuous citizens? 3. Industrialism?s Threat to Farmers Financial trouble, debt, etc. Over abundance of food ? over production ? prices drop Supplies are important but impossible to own if you don?t gain money on crops Monopolies ? railroads and banks Eastern Railroads charged high rates because they could ? which made it hard for farmers to distribute crops ? only one railroad company so screwed over Monopolies were allowed Only one bank ? so you had to use their loan rates and they wanted the highest yield so you would pay more ?Status Anxiety? Farmers were not needed or wanted anymore They don?t know what to do because of the rise of industrialism 4. Forming ?Alliances? 1867-1870 ? Patrons of Husbandry 1880?s ? National Farmers? Alliance Mary Elizabeth Lease 5. The National Alliance?s Plan ? ?the Ocala Demands? 1890 What they want: Regulate the railroads ? cant gouge the farmer while making special deals Direct election of senators ? because the former were only interested in the railroads and banks ? needed new officials who wanted to help farmers No protective tariffs for industry The ?sub treasury? system ? populists would build silos and put all your grain into silos with other farmers ? you wait until grain prices rise and then you all collectively sell and make money ? basically co-opping together to help farmers interests Free coinage of silver Money used to be back by gold ? so there aren?t a whole lot of dollars out there ? decide to back up dollar with silver since there?s more silver ? inflation will go up but it will help out farmers who are in debt at the moment 6. 1892-1896: The Populist Party 1892 ? James B. Weaver runs for President 1896 ? William Jennings Bryan runs, as Populists combine with Democrats. He loses The demise of populism Searching for Order: The Progressive Movement in America Very bipartisan Able to have labor laws (including child labor laws) passed During this period Women were finally allowed to vote Income tax ? direct election of senators (1913) Prohibition Beginnings of Progressivism ?Muckrakers? ? Tarbell, Sinclair, Riis, Steffans, etc. A person who wants to reveal corruption of a business or government to the public This was done through writing the middle-class response to ?industrial chaos? Progressive Characteristics Usually (not always) white, middle class, professional Often deeply committed Christians Often women Four major agendas 1. Political reform ? want to rid of corrupt politicians who buy their way into office ? they wanted government officials who were good at what they do rather than because they are friends 2. Scientific efficiency ? wanted people to have jobs, didn?t like waste, an efficient economy = no corruption ? best way to make it efficient then put experts in charge such as scientist 3. Economic reform ? don?t like monopoly, or intense concentrations of corporate power ? want to enforce government regulation 4. Social Justice the ?Social Gospel? movement direct opposite of social Darwinism we are all the children of god ? not on earth to see who is the best ? we are a community poverty, powerlessness Charles Sheldon ? In His Steps (1896) Opposed to alcohol, WWJD Three Progressive Stories Settlement Houses: Hull House, etc. Dedicated to improving urban conditions Jane Addams, Alice Hamilton The Good Side ? sincere efforts to help people, leads to increased female political activism, suffrage campaigns, etc. The bad side ? condescending? Self-centered? Women saw it as helping out the lower people President Teddy Roosevelt Monopolies ? tries to control them, though not always 1902 ? Northern Securities Company broken up, TR goes on to attack others Unions ? often supports them. Mine workers and the ?Square Deal? Does not always support unions Conservation ? protecting land from industrial excess Resources ? should be managed efficiently by experts. National Forest system
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