Atmospheric Layers: The proper order from shortest to longest wavelength is ? Ultraviolet, Visible, and Infrared The temperature of the tropopause ? is much colder than the temperature at the earth In a temperature inversion ? air temperature increases with increasing height The rate at which temperature decreases with increasing altitude is known as the ? Lapse Rate The most abundant gas emitted from volcanoes is ? Water Vapor The earth's atmosphere is divided into layers based on the vertical profile of ? Air Temperature The ionosphere is an atmospheric layer that contains a high concentration of ions. An ion is ? an atom or molecule that has lost or gained an electron The electrified region of the upper atmosphere is called the ? Ionosphere The primary source of oxygen for the earth's atmosphere during the past half billion years or so appears to be ? Photosynthesis At the 500 mb level, the amount of oxygen inhaled in a single breath is _________________ of that inhaled at sea-level ? About one-half The order of the layers of the atmosphere from lowest to highest is ? Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, and then the Thermosphere Most of the ionosphere is found in what atmospheric layer ? Thermosphere In the stratosphere, the air temperature normally ? increases with increasing height The negatively-charged particle that circles around the nucleus of an atom is ? an electron The outpouring of gases from the earth's hot interior is called ? Outgassing The main reason nighttime radio broadcasts can be sent over long distances is because ? the low D-level region of the ionosphere is weaker at night The lowest level of the ionosphere is referred to as the ? D-region The primary gases found in the homosphere are ? nitrogen and oxygen The atmosphere layer in which we live in is called the ? Troposphere Almost all of the earth's weather occurs in the ? Troposphere Much of Tibet lies at altitudes over 18,000 feet where the pressure is about 500 mb. At such altitudes, the Tibetans are above roughly ? 50% of the air molecules in the atmosphere Which of the following weather elements always decreases as we climb upward in the atmosphere ? Pressure Warming in the stratosphere is mainly caused by the ? absorption of ultraviolet radiation by the ozone The most abundant gas emitted from volcanoes is ? Water Vapor Atmospheric Bases: Which of the following are considered to be weather elements ? Air temperature, Humidity, Wind, and Air Pressure One micrometer is a unit of length equal to ? one millionth of a meter In an average year, more people die from ____ than from any other natural disaster ? Flash Floods and Flooding The earth's first atmosphere was composed primarily of ? Hydrogen and Helium The wind direction ? is the direction from which the wind is blowing The number or mass of air molecules in a given space or volume is called ? Density The word weather is defined as ? The condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place This holds a planet's atmosphere close to its surface ? Gravity Which relates to weather rather than climate ? outside it is cloudy and snowing Storms vary in size (diameter). Which list below arranges storms from largest to smallest ? Middle Latitude Cyclone, Hurricane, Thunderstorm, Tornado Which of the following are not units of pressure ? Newtons The amount of force exerted over an area of surface is called ? Pressure The unit of pressure most commonly found on a surface weather map ? Millibars Meteorology did not become a genuine science until ? the invention of weather instruments Which of the following provides a measure of the average speed of air molecules ? Temperature The horizontal movement of air is the weather element ? Wind Meteorology is the study of ? the Atmosphere Which latitude belt best describes the middle latitudes - 30° to 50° Solar/Earth/Atmosphere Radiation: At night, low clouds ? enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect Which principle best describes why holes develop in snow around tree trunks ? snow is a good absorber of infrared energy The sun emits its greatest intensity of radiation in ? the visible portion of the spectrum How do red and blue light differ ? the wavelength of red light is longer The sun emits a maximum amount of radiation at wavelengths near ____, while the earth emits maximum radiation near wavelengths of ____ - 0.5 micrometers, 10 micrometers The greatest variation in daily temperature usually occurs ? at the ground Solar radiation reaches the earth's surface as ? Ultraviolet, Visible, and Infrared radiation At which temperature would the earth be radiating energy at the greatest rate or intensity - 105°F Which of the following has the highest albedo ? Snow If the sun suddenly began emitting more energy, the earth's radiative equilibrium temperature would ? increases Sunlight that bounces off a surface is said to be ____ from the surface ? reflected Energy transferred by electromagnetic waves is called ? Radiation The earth's radiation is often referred to as ____ radiation, while the sun's radiation is often referred to as ____ radiation ? Longwave, Shortwave The combined albedo of the earth and the atmosphere is approximately ? 30% Low clouds retard surface cooling at night better than clear skies because ? the cloud absorbs and radiates infrared energy back to earth Suppose last night was clear and calm. Tonight low clouds will be present. From this you would conclude that tonight's minimum temperature will be ? higher than last night The atmosphere near the earth's surface is heated from below. Which of the following in not responsible for the heating ? heat energy from the earth On the average, about what percentage of the solar energy that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earth's surface ? 50% Clouds ____ infrared radiation and ____ visible radiation ? Absorbs, Reflects The albedo of the earth's surface is only about 4%, yet the combined albedo of the earth and the atmosphere is about 30%. Which set of conditions below best explains why this is so ? high albedo of clouds, low albedo of water The albedo of the moon is 7%. This means that ? 7% of the sunlight striking the moon is reflected If the average temperature of the sun increased, the wavelength of peak solar emission would ? shift to a shorter wavelength An increase in albedo would be accompanied by ____ in radiative equilibrium temperature ? a decrease During the afternoon the greatest temperature difference between the surface air and the air several meters above occurs on a ? clear, calm afternoon The average surface temperature of the planet Mars is about -60°C. Therefore, the wavelength of maximum energy emission on Mars would be about ? 14 micrometers Which of the following statements is not correct ? good absorbers of radiation are usually poor emitters of radiation Which of the following has a wavelength shorter than that of violet light ? Ultraviolet Radiation Which of the following is an incorrect association ? black body (selective absorber) Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 0.4 and 0.7 micrometers is called ? visible light Without the atmospheric greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature would be ? lower than at present The earth's radiative equilibrium temperature is ? the temperature at which the earth is absorbing solar radiation and emitting infrared radiation at equal rates If the amount of energy lost by the earth to space each year were not approximately equal to that received ? The Atmosphere On the average, as a cloud grows thicker (taller), which below does not occur ? less sunlight is absorbed by the cloud The earth emits radiation with greatest intensity at ? Infrared wavelengths The major process that warms the lower atmosphere is ? absorption of infrared radiation If the earth's average surface temperature were to increase, the amount of radiation emitted from the earth's surface would ____ and the wavelength of peak emission would shift toward ____ wavelengths ? increases, shorter The combined albedo of the earth and its atmosphere averages about 30%. This value could effectively be altered by ? increasing the amount of cloud cover around the earth, increasing the amount of snow and ice covering the earth, and increasing the amount of particulates in the atmosphere that reflect sunlight Heat and Energy: A change of one degree on the Celcius scale is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a change of one degree on the Fahrenheit scale ? Larger than Heat is energy in the process of being transferred from ? hot objects and cold objects The term latent means ? HIDDEN The temperature scale where 0°represents freezing and 100°boiling ? Celcius The temperature scale that sets freezing of pure water at 32°F ? Fahrenheit The horizontal transport of any atmospheric property by the wind is called ? Advection The cold feeling that you experience after leaving a swimming pool on a hot, dry, summer day represents heat transport by ? Latent heat A heat transfer process in the atmosphere that depends upon the movement of air is ? Convection A temperature of 27°C would be equal to what temperature on the Kelvin scale - 300°K Which of the following is the poorest conductor of heat ? Still Air The primary source of energy for the earth's atmosphere is ? The Sun The heat energy released when water vapor changes to a liquid is called ? Latent heat of condensation If the temperature of the air is said to be at absolute zero, one might conclude that ? the molecules contain a minimum amount of energy Heat transferred outward from the surface of the moon can take place by ? Radiation When water changes from a liquid to a vapor, we call this process ? Evaporation Snow will usually melt on the roof of a home that is a ? good conductor of heat The transfer of heat by molecule-to-molecule contact ? Conduction Energy of motion is also known as ? Kinetic energy The change of state of ice into water vapor is known as ? Sublimation The processes of condensation and freezing ? both release sensible heat into the environment This is released as sensible heat during the formation of clouds ? Latent heat Greenhouse Gases: Which of the following gases are mainly responsible for the atmospheric greenhouse effect in the earth's atmosphere ? Water vapor and carbon dioxide Of the gases listed below, which is not believed to be responsible for enhancing the earth's greenhouse effect ? molecular oxygen (O2) A greenhouse gas used as a refrigerant, a solvent, and during the manufacture of foam - chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Which below is not considered a greenhouse gas ? Oxygen The atmospheric greenhouse effect is produced mainly by the ? absorption and re-emission of infrared radiation by the atmosphere The most abundant greenhouse gas in the earth's atmosphere ? Water vapor Since the turn of this century, CO2 in the atmosphere has ? been increasing in concentration The earth's atmospheric window is in the ? infrared region Seasonality: The main reason(s) for warm summers in middle latitudes is that ? only the sun is higher in the sky and we receive more direct solar radiation, and the days are longer On which date would the sun's rays be closest to being perpendicular to the earth's surface in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere ? June 21st In the Northern Hemisphere, this day has the fewest hours of daylight ? winter solstice The sun is directly overhead at Mexico City (latitude 19?N) ? twice a year Which of the following helps to explain why even though northern latitudes experience 24 hours of sunlight on June 22, they are not warmer than latitudes further south ? Solar energy is spread over a larger area in northern latitudes, some of the sun, increased cloud cover reflects solar energy in the northern latitudes, and solar energy is used to melt frozen soil in the northern latitudes During the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere ? Astronomical winter begins in the Northern Hemisphere, the noon sun is overhead at 23.5°S latitude, and at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, this marks the longest night of the year Although the polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive by insolation in the course of a year, they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year by the ? circulation of heat by the atmosphere and oceans Where are the days and nights of equal length all year long ? at the equator The sun will pass directly overhead at noon in Miami, Florida (latitude 26°N) ? NEVER On what day would you expect the sun to be overhead at Lima, Peru (latitude 12°S) ? February 4th The north-facing side of a hill in a mountainous region in the US tends to ? Receive less sunlight during a year than the south-facing side, grow a variety of trees that are typically observed at higher elevation, be a better location for a ski run than the south-facing side, and have snow on the ground for a longer period of time in winter compared to the south-facing side At middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, we can expect the day with the shortest number of daylight hours to occur around ? December 22nd At noon on June 22, the sun will be directly overhead at ? the Tropic of Cancer During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the land of the midnight sun would be found ? at high latitudes When it is January and winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is ____ and ____ in the Southern Hemisphere ? January and summer In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere on June 22, the sun ? rises in the northeast and sets in the southwest Which of the following best describes the weather conditions necessary to bring Indian summer weather to the eastern half of the United States ? a strong slow-moving high-pressure area off the southeast coast Between Christmas and New Year's, at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, the length of the day ? increases Solar panels on a solar home built in the Southern Hemisphere should face ? North At the top of the earth's atmosphere during the early summer, at what latitude would you expect to receive the most solar radiation during a 24 hour period - 80°N During an equinox ? the days and nights are of equal length except at the poles, at noon the sun is overhead at the equator, and the earth is not tilted toward nor away from the sun The most important reason why summers in the Southern Hemisphere are not warmer than summers in the Northern Hemisphere is that ? over 80% of the Southern Hemisphere is covered with water In July, at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, the day is ____ long and is ____ with each passing day ? more than 12 hours, getting shorter At the North Pole the sun will rise above the horizon on ____ and set below the horizon on ____ - March 21st, September 23rd If the elevation of the light source is 30° the amount of energy received per unit area at the surface ________ from when the light is directly overhead ? decreases by 50% The earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5° with respect to the plane of its orbit around the sun. If the amount of tilt were increased to 40° we would expect in middle latitudes ? hotter summers and colder winters than at present For maximum winter warmth, in the Northern Hemisphere, large windows in a house should face ? South Our seasons are caused by ? only the angle at which sunlight reaches the earth, and the length of the daylight hours are correct During the course of a year the sun will disappear from view at the North Pole on what date ? September 23rd The hours of daylight at the summer solstice_____________ - increases from south to north Incoming solar radiation in middle latitudes is less in winter than in summer because ? The earth and the sun Suppose you drive to and from work on a street that runs east to west. On what day would you most likely have the sun shining directly in your eyes while driving to and from work ? Autumnal equinox Which latitude below would experience the fewest hours of daylight on Dec. 22 - 60°N Which of the following is correct at the time of the summer solstice in June - it marks the beginning of astronomical summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it occurs around June 22, and the noon sun is overhead at the Tropic of Cancer The astronomical beginning of spring occurs around this date in the Northern Hemisphere ? March 21st The latitude at which there is a yearly balance between incoming and outgoing radiation is about ? 37 At middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, we can expect the day with the longest number of daylight hours to occur around ? January 22nd Indian summer would most likely occur during the month of ? October Air Temperature: In most areas the warmest time of the day about 5 feet above the ground occurs ? in the afternoon between 2 and 5 pm In summer, humid regions typically have ____ daily temperature ranges and ____ maximum temperatures than drier regions ? smaller, lower Ideal conditions for a strong radiation inversion ? clear, calm, dry, winter night An important reason for the large daily temperature range over deserts is ? there is little water vapor in the air to absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation The primary cause of a radiation inversion is ? infrared radiation emitted by the earth Two objects have the same temperature. Object A feels colder to the touch than object B. This is probably because the two objects have different ? thermal conductivities Which of the following can be used as a method of protecting an orchard from damaging low temperatures during a radiation inversion ? orchard heaters, wind machines, and irrigation (cover the area with water) The deepest radiation inversion would be observed ? in polar regions in winter One would expect the lowest temperatures to be found next to the ground on a ? clear, dry calm night The lowest temperature is usually observed ? Around Sunrise Suppose yesterday morning you noticed ice crystals (frost) on the grass, yet the minimum temperature reported in the newspaper was only 35°F. The most likely reason for this apparent discrepancy is that ? temperature readings are taken in instrument shelters more than 5 feet above the ground In a hilly region the best place to plant crops that are sensitive to low temperatures is ? along the hillsides Which of the following is not a reason why water warms and cools much more slowly than land - it takes more heat to raise the temperature of a given amount of soil 1°C than it does to raise the temperature of water 1°C At what time during a 24-hour day would a radiation temperature inversion best be developed ? Near Sunrise A radiation inversion is most commonly observed ? Just above the ground The largest annual ranges of temperatures are found ? at polar latitudes over land The lag in daily temperature refers to the time lag between the - time of maximum solar radiation and the time of maximum temperature Everything else being equal, the lowest air temperature on a winter night will occur above a ? surface covered with snow Over the earth as a whole, one would expect to observe the smallest variation in temperature from day to day and from month to month ? on a small island near the equator On a clear, calm, night, the ground and air above cool mainly by this process ? Radiation Water Vapor: Relative humidity changes with ? addition of water vapor to the air, decrease in temperature, increase in temperature, and removal of water vapor from the air When the air temperature is below freezing, the saturation vapor pressure over water is ____ - greater than the saturation vapor pressure over ice The temperature at which water boils depends mainly on ? Air Pressure If very cold air is brought indoors and warmed with no change in its moisture content, the saturation vapor pressure of this air will ____ and the relative humidity of this air will ____ - increase, decrease The time of day when the relative humidity reaches a maximum value is usually ? at the time when the air temperature is lowest In a blinding snowstorm in Vermont the air temperature and dew-point temperature are both 30°F. Meanwhile, under clear skies in Arizona, the air temperature is 85°F and the dew point temperature is 38°F. From this information you could co ? there is more water vapor in the air in Arizona A high water vapor pressure indicates ? a relatively large number of water vapor molecules in the air The main reason why vegetables take longer to cook in boiling water at high altitudes is because ? the temperature of the boiling water decreases with increasing altitude Suppose saturated polar air has an air temperature and dew point of -10°C, and unsaturated desert air has an air temperature of 35°C and a dew point of 10°C. The desert air contains ____ water vapor and has a ____ relative humidity than th ? more, lower If the air temperature increased, with no addition or removal of water vapor, the actual vapor pressure would ? stay the same During the summer, in terms of the actual amount of water vapor in the air, the driest part of the United States is found ? in Nevada As the difference between the air temperature and the dew point increases, the relative humidity ? decreases Suppose it is snowing outside and the air is saturated. The air temperature and dew point are both 15°F, and the actual vapor pressure is 3 mb. If this air is brought indoors and warmed to 75°F, what would the relative humidity of this air be ? 10 percent At 40°F, the atmosphere is saturated with water vapor. If the air temperature increases to 60°F, with no addition or removal of water vapor, one may conclude that the dew point is about - 40°F When the air temperature increases, the saturation vapor pressure will ? increase On a hot, humid day a measure of how cool the human skin can become is the ? wet-bulb temperature Which of the following will increase the relative humidity in a home during the winter ? taking a shower and letting the air circulate through the home Suppose the dew point of cold outside air is the same as the dew point of the air indoors. If the door is opened and cold air replaces some of the warm air, then the new relative humidity indoors would be ? higher than before The percentage of water vapor present in the air compared to that required for saturation is the ? relative humidity The instrument that measures humidity by measuring the amount of radiant energy absorbed by water vapor is the ? infrared hygrometer Which of the following is the best indicator of the actual amount of water vapor in the air ? Dew Point Temperature At what time of day is the relative humidity normally at a minimum ? when the air temperature is highest If all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the ground, the globe would be covered with about ____ of water ? 1 inch As the air temperature increases, the air's capacity for water vapor ? increases Water Vapor ? is invisible The lowest temperature that can be attained by evaporating water into the air is known as the ? wet-bulb temperature This instrument uses wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperature to obtain relative humidity ? sling psychrometer If water vapor comprises 3.5% of an air parcel whose total pressure is 1000 mb, the water vapor pressure would be ? 35 mb Which of the following will decrease in a rising parcel of air ? Absolute Humidity If the temperature is 25°C and the relative humidity is 50% approximately what is, e the actual vapor pressure ? 15 mb The ratio of the mass of water vapor in a given volume (parcel) of air to the mass of the remaining dry air describes the ? Mixing Ratio If a glass of water were surrounded by saturated air ? the level of the water in the glass would not change Transpiration is ? release of moisture by plants into the atmosphere Evaporative coolers are primarily used in climates where the summers are ? hot and dry The temperature to which air must be cooled in order to become saturated is the ? Dew Point Temperature As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the dew point will ? remain the same During the summer, in terms of the actual amount of water vapor in the air, the most humid part of the United States is found ? along the gulf coast As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the relative humidity will ? decreases If the air temperature remains constant, evaporating water into the air will ____ the dew point and ____ the relative humidity ? increase, increase If the temperature is 35°C what is the saturation vapor pressure ? 53 mb The Gulf Coast states are more humid in summer than the coastal areas of Southern California mainly because of the ? higher water temperature in the Gulf of Mexico Humidity Measurement Methods: If the air temperature in a room is 70°F, the saturation vapor pressure is 25 mb, the dew point temperature is 45°F, and the actual vapor pressure is 10 mb, then the relative humidity must be near ____ percent ? 40% If the temperature is 20°C and the actual vapor pressure, e, is 10 mb what is the relative humidity ? 45% Which of the following will increase in a rising parcel of air ? Relative Humidity Cloud Identification: Clouds that have a characteristic lens-shaped appearance are referred to as (a) ? Lenticular The name given to a towering cloud that has not fully developed into a thunderstorm is ? Cumulus Congestus A halo around the moon means that ? Cirrostratus clouds are present Cirrus clouds are composed primarily of ? Ice Particles Detached clouds of delicate and fibrous appearance, without shading, usually white in color and sometimes of a silky appearance are ? Cirrus A dim, watery sun visible through a gray sheet-like cloud layer is often a good indication of ____ clouds ? Altostratus In middle latitudes, which cloud will have the lowest base ? Stratocumulus Hail is usually associated with what cloud ? Cumulonimbus At which city might you be able to observe cirrus clouds at an altitude of 3000 m (10,000 feet) above the surface ? Barrow, Alaska Condensation onto hygroscopic nuclei is possible at relative humidities less than 100 percent due to the ? Solute effect A low, lumpy cloud layer that appears in rows, patches or rounded masses would be classified ? Stratocumulus If you hold your hand at arm's length and cloud elements appear to be about the size of your fist, the cloud type is probably ? Stratocumulus The cloud with the greatest vertical growth is ? Cumulonimbus Wave clouds that often form over or downwind of a mountain are called ? Lenticular clouds The name given to ragged-looking clouds that rapidly drift with the wind beneath a rain-producing cloud is ? Scud Which association below is not correct ? Cumulus Congestus (anvil top) An example of orographic clouds would be ? cloud that form on the upwind slope of a mountain An anvil-shaped top is most often associated with ? Cumulonimbus Which of the following cloud types would commonly be found downwind of a mountain ? Lenticular Clouds Which below is not a way in which a contrail may form ? Due to heating of the air by the engine exhaust Which association below is not correct ? Cirrocumulus At middle latitudes, the base of an altostratus or altocumulus cloud would generally be found between ? 6,500 and 23,000 feet In middle latitudes, which cloud will have the highest base ? Cirrostratus Light or moderate-but-steady precipitation is most often associated with ____ clouds ? Nimbostratus Suppose the sky is completely covered with a thin, white layered-type cloud. You look at the ground and see that objects cast a distinct shadow. From this you conclude that the cloud type must be ? Cirrostratus In a sky filled with scattered cumulus humilis clouds, rising motions are found ________ the clouds and sinking motions are found ________ the clouds ? under, between Which of the following pairs of cloud types could be very similar in appearance - Altocumulus and Cirrocumulus A middle cloud that sometimes forms in parallel waves or bands is ? Altocumulus The cloud-like streamer often seen forming behind an aircraft flying at high altitude is called (a) ? Contrail Which of the following cloud types would be found at the highest elevation above the earth's surface ? Notilucent A towering cloud, or cluster of clouds, accompanied by thunder, lightning, and strong, gusty winds ? Thunderstorm Which cloud is least likely to produce precipitation that reaches the ground ? Cirrocumulus Which of the following associations is not correct ? Stratocumulus (cloud of vertical development) Clouds that appear as bag-like sacks hanging from beneath a cloud are ? Mammatus Lenticular clouds typically form _______________ a mountain range ? downwind of Which cloud type is composed of ice crystals and can cause a halo to form around the sun or moon ? Cirrostratus Condensation: Water vapor is ? a gas Condensation is more likely to occur ? when the air cools Clouds often form in the ? rising air in the center of a low pressure area Condensation nuclei may be ? particles of dust, nitric acid particles, smoke from forest fires, and salt from the ocean The cooling of the ground to produce dew is mainly the result of ? Radiation Cooling Particles that serve as surfaces on which water vapor may condense are called ? Condensation nuclei Condensation nuclei are important in the atmosphere because ? they make it easier for condensation to occur in the atmosphere
Want to see the other 11 page(s) in Test 1 Review sheet part 1?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!