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began in the 15th century and lasted until the 17th century. It refers to the time period during which Spanish and Portuguese explorers traveled south to Africa and east to Indochina to satisfy Europe’s growing capitalist enterprise. It leads to the consolidation of a shared European identity in contrast to the rest of the world.
term we refer to the historical era during which nations came to form, capitalism developed and spread throughout the west, global expansion led to the discovery of “the New World,” and the rapid growth of scientific knowledge was promoted by the disenchantment of the world.
were laborers with diverse backgrounds (ex-prisoners from English jails, Native Americans stolen from tribal homelands, Africans brought over as part of the slave trade, and “savage Irish”) who were bound to an employer for a fixed amount of time after which they were freed.
The plantation system
was comprised of dozens of large settlements reliant on coerced labor and organized around agricultural production for profit.
, unlike indentured servitude, means that workers (and their offspring) are bound to their masters for life and are considered their master’s property, bought and sold at the owner’s discretion.
African slavery was institutionalized between 1660 and 1860 via its incorporation into American society as a formalized and normalized establishment through a series of social and legal changes stripping Africans and other nonwhites of their rights.
15-30% died aboard slave ships
Poor whites who did not own plantations or slaves still benefited from the public deference and titles of courtesy given to them because of their whiteness. They were a cheap labor force for wealthier white landowners, but they were able to take pride in their whiteness and this gave them a psychological advantage.
were a set of laws that denied blacks citizenship and governance over even the most intimate spheres of their lives.
slave marriages were not legally recognized, slave families did not exist in the eyes of the law and so families were often separated and scattered, and it was illegal for a slave to testify against a white person. denied blacks of education..classified children of mixed union as slaves as well
renders anyone with any amount of “African blood” as black, regardless of how many of one’s ancestors were black. This fed into the ideal of whiteness as unpolluted by Africa.
In ___ they would take up arms against their masters in open revolution, burning buildings and crop fields and engaging whites in bloody warfare.
The abolitionists were a group of whites and blacks who worked side by side in the Underground Railroad, a network of secret routes to help fugitive slaves run north to freedom, and who called for the abolition of slavery, leading to the abolishment of slavery in the North by 1804, where the abolitionist movement was strongest.
This was the nation’s first and only policy attempt at offering reparations for slavery. It was a decree that allotted forty acres of land to recently-freed heads of households as well as to slaves who fought in the Union Army.
was a time period of strict racial segregation governed by various laws and supported by the Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that ruled segregation as constitutional under the doctrine of “separate but equal,” even though black and white facilities were anything but. Jim Crow segregation was legal in the South but in the North, where segregation was enforced through custom.
ended the Mexican-American war and gave the United States the land that today is New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada, parts of Arizona, and disputed areas of Texas.
the Indian Allotment Act dispossessed Indians of more than 60% of their tribal landholdings by the 1930s.
The Indian Allotment Act of 1877 dissolved tribal landholdings and instead allotted certain pieces of land to individual Indians on reservations.
The 1875 Page Law barred all Chinese women from America and in 1882, all Chinese immigrants were forbidden entry into the United States. Under the 1924 Immigration Act, people from all over Asia were denied entry. This task of denying citizenship eligibility led courts to construct Asians as a nonwhite group.
was a scientific program to ensure genetic purity regulating marriage and child rearing according to genetic giftedness of parents. The result was forced sterilization of “lower races” that were deemed “inferior” as well as surgical operations that resulted in the infertility of people considered mentally retarded or criminal. The aim was to secure that those considered superior would be more likely to prevail and inferior human beings would eventually be weeded out.
hypothesizes that interpersonal racism will increase in one group the more it perceives threat by another.
indicates belonging to two or more racial groups. Today, 1 in 40 people in the United States claim multiracial heritage and that ration jumps to 1 in 20 for people under the age of 18.
refers to the collection of organizations and people who carried out political acts aimed at dismantling the white power structure by abolishing racial segregation, nonwhite disenfranchisement, and economic exploitation.
, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, was the dominant black organization that preceded the modern Civil Rights Movement. The NAACP battled racial domination primarily in the courts but as it grew stronger, so did opposition to it. Weakened by the white power structure (especially in the South), civil rights organizing shifted in response to include community-based groups focused on direct, and not just legal, action.
was one of the first major demonstrations of the Civil Rights Movement. It began in response to Rosa Parks’ refusal to give her seat up to a white man on an Alabama bus in defiance of segregation laws. When she was imprisoned, hundreds of Montgomery’s blacks refused to ride on segregated buses. Though whites resisted en mass and with great force, the boycott brought about a Supreme Court ruling that outlawed racial segregation on buses.
The SCLC, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, formed the institutional hub of the Civil Rights Movement. Originally the Montgomery Improvement Association, formed to support the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the MIA helped train hundreds of black activists in nonviolent resistance and focused energy more on systemic racism than individual racism.
were one of the first major demonstrations invented and orchestrated by students whereby they would peacefully and politely sit in white-only places until closing time as a form of nonviolent political protest against the systematic exclusion of blacks.
, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, included hundreds of politically mobilized college students who orchestrated various inventive demonstrations such as sit-ins and freedom rides.
The Selma to Montgomery March was organized by both the SCLC and the SNCC. It was a massive demonstration aimed at registering black voters along the way, and despite setbacks caused by violence, by the third start a crowd of 25,000 gathered at the capitol building in Alabama. Five months later, President Johnson signed into law the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
prohibited voter discrimination, outlawed literacy tests, and gave the federal government power to oversee voter registration. As a result, blacks were for the first time able to participate in American democracy.
outlawed discrimination on the basis of race, religion, sex, or national origin in hotels, theaters, transportation, restaurants, and the workplace.
was co-founded by Cesar Chavez as a labor union dedicated to providing farm workers and other working people with the tools and skills to organize against migrant worker exploitation, Mexican American and otherwise.
is that the same language of the Civil Rights Movement is used but to promote agendas aimed at dismantling the movement and upholding white dominance.
When we speak of racial polarization in the American electorate, we refer to the fact that the majority of whites tilt toward the GOP while the majority of nonwhites tilt toward the Democratic Party.
refers to the process of appointing nonwhites who are disconnected from the needs and problems of most nonwhite citizens to positions in politics.
refers to genuine political representation marked by a correspondence between the goals of nonwhite representatives and nonwhite citizens.
is a term coined by Alexis de Tocqueville to describe how the American political system is often steered by majority interests that frequently overrun minority rights and concerns.
holds that whites living in racially homogeneous areas are more likely to develop racist attitudes about nonwhite people and therefore are also more likely to oppose public policies designed to combat racial inequality.
Felon disenfranchisement may appear to have little do with race but in reality, not only did states adopt laws denying felon rights after the Fifteenth Amendment was ratified, but also, because blacks are imprisoned at a much higher rate than whites
), this results in as many as one of four black men being stripped of their right to vote
are made when racial imagery is connected with racialized dispositions among a mass of voters who are likely to associate these images with negative thoughts.
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