Socialization Why is it important? Allows you to function in your culture Socialization is never fully complete Children who aren?t socialized Don?t know social norms Can?t develop quickly Can?t learn language skills passed a five year old level Cases of feral children Gender Socialization Boy/girl specific toys Freud- Females have ?penis envy? Personality: Determined by nature or nurture? (BOTH) Identical twins = not same personalities Emperor Frederick II: Allowed foster mothers to feed/bath/take care of children but they weren?t allowed to speak to them Kids need interaction Feral Children Many children not researched by professional investigators Can?t speak in full sentences most of the time or be taught to Children need social interaction with other adult humans Institutionalized Children Lack close interaction and emotional ties to adults Lower IQ, more aggressive, emotionally cold The Self Human?s can reflect on self as an object Self is a social product Absent at birth/ something that develops over time Looking-Glass-Self: Cooley Formed in childhood Reevaluated as one enters new situations What you think of yourself is what we thing others think of us Appearance to others How others judge us We develop feelings about this Mead: Symbolic Interactionism Concerned with interaction that takes place between people through the use of symbols Language = most important symbol We don?t respond directly to people but to the meaning we interpret from the symbols they present to us Even the mind is a social product Developed through interactions Stages Imitation (birth-2) Pre-role taking/ mimic other in immediate environment Specific Other (2-7) Role taking Able to put yourself in mind of specific other Generalized Other (7+) Simultaneously putting yourself in mind of many others Team sports The ?I? Spontaneous/ self-interested/ impulsive Concerned with self The ?ME? Conscious of social norms/ values/ expectations Piaget: stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2) Children can?t think about the world Experience through physical experience Pre-Operational Stage (2-7) Children have no understanding of weight/number/causality Concrete Operational Stage (7-12) Children can reason about concrete situations but not abstract ones Ex. No understanding of justice or death Formal Operational Stage (12+) Adolescence can for abstract thoughts Theories and hypothesis Agents of Socialization Family (early on) All encompassing Friendships World views/ race views/ class views Make you feel special Class Different class families socialize their children differently Middle Class Take initiative Explore world Punish by privileges taken away Working Class Conformity Self-discipline Parents teach children to replace themselves Schools Children become one of many Behavior and performance part of permanent record Teaches skills and subject matter as well as values and behavioral practices Peer Groups Start to replace family towards adolescence May form subculture Explore topics other agents of socialization don?t Sex/drugs Interact on an equal basis Shape social behavior and personality Mass Media Present lifestyles we are not familiar with Presents to us social values Race/Ethnicity Learn to live in two worlds: minority and majority Usually only affects minorities Some groups can move into mainstream Religion Conveys messages about right and wrong Shape identity through activities/practices Gender Freud?s work ? ?Penis envy? Chadarow ? mothers emotional involvement important/ dominant influence Men and women develop gender identity differently Goffman Popularized ?impression management? Social interaction consists of playing roles (sister, girlfriend, daughter, etc.) As we take on different roles we show a different part of ourselves Dramaturgy: Method of analyzing social interaction as though the participants are actors on a stage Understand how social order is possible Unspoken rules of interaction Civil inattention: Refers to when we are aware of presence of others but avoid contact with them We present different selves in different situations We are typically unaware of the different ways we present ourselves Impression Management: Attempting to control impressions that we make on others We use ?props? (briefcases, luxury cars, clothes, etc.) Back Stage: Private (Ex. Waitress in the kitchen) Front Stage: Public (Ex. Waitress with customers) We all participate in way to let others maintain ?face? Avoid questioning someone?s performance Don?t want to embarrass others
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