What do Geographers do? What aspect of the system do they study?
Spatial relations between physical systems and processes that make up the environment.
Four spheres of the Earth
Atmosphere (air)Hydrosphere (water)Lithosphere (rock and soil)Biosphere (us and living things)
Shape of earth 1)approx.? 2)realistically? 3)proper name?
1) sphere2) oblate ellipsoid3) geoid
When did humans know the Earth was round? How correct were the measurements?
247 B.C.Eratosthenes was 15%.
Latitude & Longitude
Latitude/Parallels - East to WestLongitude/Meridians - North to South
Significance of Tropics of Cancer & Capricorn. What happens in the Arctic & Antarctic circles at any point? What are their latitudes?
Cancer & Capricorn are at 23.5 N & S. Where the sun is overhead at noon on first day of summer.Arctic & Antarctic are at 66.5 N & S. Have polar night at least once a year. 23.5 because of the tilt.
Latitude of North Pole?
90 degrees N
What's a great circle? Why do transocean flights follow great circles?
Path around Earth that has center of the Earth as the center of the circle. Great circle route is always the shortest route.
Why do we have time zones? When were they invented? What transportation inspired them?
Global timing. 1840's. Railroads.
How wide in longitude is a time zone and why?
360/24 = 15 Each time zone is 15 degrees.
Where's the International Date Line? If you travel west past it, what happens?
180 degrees away from the Prime Meridian. West you go back a day.
Cartography is the science of studying the physical environment.A map with a scale of 1:50,000,000 is small scale.
Why can't you draw a perfect map of the globe? What TWO GOALS of mapmaking are not possible on a 2D map?
Because a globe is 3D and a map is 2D.Equal area and true shape.
4 kinds of map projections
1) Cylindrical (wrap globe in a cylinder of paper)2) Planar (put paper tangent to globe at point like poles)3) Conic (make a paper cone around globe)4) Oval (math)
What kind of map is Mercator? Gnomonic projection is focused on what location on Earth?
1) Cylindrical2) Poles... North Pole especially
2 Categories of Remote Sensing. What category do weather satellites belong to? Weather radar?
1) Active is weather radar2) Passive is satellite
What is GPS? GIS?
1) GPS is Global Positional System2) Geographic Information System - layered multi plotted maps
What is the major energy source for the Earth's physical environment?
What star 150,000,000 KM from Earth has temp of 6000 degrees C? What electromag. radiation does this star emit?
2900/temp(6000) = .48 = visible light.5 IS LIGHT, 10 IS HEAT
What external source of charged particles helps trigger auroras in the Earth's upper atmosphere.
The sun had few/no sunspots between 1650-1700. The sun had few/no sunspots this summer. If the sun had no sunspots, would it affect the climate?
FalseTrueYes, it would be cooler.
Aphelion & Perihelion. What days do they happen? If the Earth wasn't tilted, when would it be coldest in Athens?
Aphelion is when the Earth is farthest from Sun. July 4Perihelion is when the Earth is closest from Sun. Jan 3July.
In early July, Earth is __% farther away from the sun than on av.
What is equinox, when are they, and what do they mean for the poles?
One of two times during the year when the tilt of the Earth isn't towards or away from the sun. Day and night are of equal length. March 20 and Sept 23. Sun comes up to stay up or goes down to stay down.
What two locations/times is "daily insolation" greatest on Earth? If you want to take pics of long sunsets, you should go to North Pole in winter.
The poles in their appropriate summer times.False, summer.
What gas accounts for 80% and 20% of atmosphere? What are gases that make up <1% called? Name some.
Nitrogen and OxygenTrace Gases - Methane, carbon dioxide, ozone, cfc's, etc.
Two composition layers of the atmosphere.
Homosphere - well mixedHetersphere - not well mixed
Four temperature layers of the atmosphere.
Troposphere - temp decreases as you go upStratosphere - temp increases as you go upMesosphere - temp decreases as you go upThermosphere - temp increases as you go up
What is lapse rate? Temperature inversion?
How much the temp changes as you go up in the atmosphereUsually the temp goes down as you go up in the troposphere but when it doesn't, it's called temp inversion.
Which atmospheric layer is one big temp inversion? Why does temp increase with height there?
Ozone is up there and the ozone absorbs UV rays from the sun.
What is ionosphere? What happens to it at night and what appliance can you use to tell? What health problem does ozone help and where is it?
Where the ions predominate in the ozone. Energetic solar particles strike top of Earth's atmosphere and form ions. At night is disappears. You can use an AM radio to tell. Ozone is in the stratosphere and helps prevent skin cancer.
Typical atmospheric pressure at sea level? Record-low? What weather system caused it?
1013.25 MB. 870 MB is low. A typhoon?
How does atmospheric pressure change as you go up? How does density change as you go up?
They both decrease as you go up. Kittinger balloon experiment explains this!
Take a closed water bottle with air in it from sea level and go up to Denver. What happens?
Bottle expands and can bust.
How much of the mass of the atmosphere is in the troposphere?
How does the global average temp change as you go up in the troposphere and why?
Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Argon are transparent so the sunlight comes all the way down to the ground, warms the ground, and then the ground warms the troposphere.
What pollutant was put in gas and why? What can it do to people? How does it relate to crime rates?
Lead to stop engine clanking. Makes people stupid and crazy. As economy goes down, crime rates go up, but the economy has gone down as well as the crime rates.
Under what weather conditions should ECV residents expect the "Poop on the Loop"?
Temp inversion which is assoc. with low pressure. During the night with nice weather it's worse.
Which is not electromagnetic radiation? Gamma rays, X rays, Light waves, Heat waves, Sound waves, Microwaves
Can you see a normal sized man's face with radio waves? Why?
No, because electromagnetic radiation has a LONG wavelength of meters so to interact with a human head, the head has to be the same size as the waves.
As an object gets hotter, the wavelength at which its EM energy emission peaks moves to (shorter? longer?) wavelengths.
5 things that happen to EM radiation as it enters atmosphere. (ARRTS)