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Experiment

an observation of natural phenomena, carried out in a controlled manner, so the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions can be obtained

hypothesis

a tentative explanation of natural phenomena

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observation

uses of the senses, or extensions thereof, to acquire information about natural phenomena

theory

a tested explanation of natural phenomena

law

a concise statement or mathematical equation about natural phenomena

Rank the order of confidence with regard to being correct

G-L

1. law

2. theory

3. Hypothesis

Can a scientific law be wrong

yes

To be scientific, an explanation of natural phenomena must have the potential to be

proven WRONG

What should be do when the results disagree with our ideas of nature

alter our WAY OF THINKING to make it agree with the data

a law usually applies to

a wide variety of cases

2 requirements of experiment

1. carried out in controlled manner

2. Results be reproducible

Ideal gas law

PV=nRT

To be scientific, a hypothesis or theory must

be falsifiable- make predictions then tested by doing experiments

scientific method

qualitative attribute

expresses some characteristic without placing any scale of measure

(ex: its cold)

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quantitative attribute

expresses the degree or magnitude of some characteristic by assigning it a value on some comparative scale of measure

quantative properties

1. dimensionless

2. dimensional

dimensionless qualietes

pure number

(3, 5.7, 3/4)

dimensional qualities

carry units

(11.5 hrs, 5 m, 4 g)

elementary dimensions

cannot be broken down into simpler dimensions

(ex-length, temp)

compound dimensions

built using elementary dimensions (ex-mph or length/time) (area l^2 and volume l^3)

metric system

consists of a set of original units (unprefixed) for each physical dimension and a set of prefixes tha take the original unit larger or smaller

SI system

attempt to have one unit for each measurement

-a subset of the metric system

multplying a measured quality by a conversion factor changes

the appearance of the quantity

numerical value of a conversion factor

1

how are conversion factors used

by multiplying 1 by the original quantity

when units are squared

the numerical relationship is squared

when you convert a measurement in one set of units to a different set of units

the new quality looks different but is mathematically the same as the original

Non-zero digest are

always significant

zeros at the beginning of a # are

never significant

zeros to the R of the decimal

are significant IF they are preceded by non zero digits

1 or more consecutive 0 between sig digs

are significant

0s at end of number w/o decimal

indeterminate

indeterminate

can't tell if they are significant (ex 500m)

0 is only sig if

its presence improves the precision of the number

sig figs in multiplication and division

answer has sig figs of # with fewest sig figs

sig figs in addition and subtraction

answer has as many decimal places as the number with fewest decimal places

infinite sig figs

exact numbers

(students or ft/yd)

Charge of electron

negative

protons charge

positive

Protons are found

in the nucleus

which subatomic particle has the smalls mass

electron

protons determine

the chemical identity of an atom (which element it is)

gives the atom volume

electron

atomic number

the number of protons an atom contains

mass number

the sum of

p + n

isotopes

2+ atoms with same atomic # (protons) but different mass #

if 2 atoms are isotopes

must be atoms of the same element

how to determine neutrons

mass # minus atomic #

a X

z

a-mass number

z-atomic number

X-chemical symbol

electrons are found

outside the nucleus

do decide which element an atom belongs to you need to know

the # of protons

outside the nucleus consists of

electrons only

the total # of subatomic particles in the nucleus is

the mass number

if you sub atomic # from mass #

get # of neutrons

isotopes

same number of p, different # n

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