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Washington State University - Pullman campus
Criminal Justice 330
Criminal Justice 330
Washington State University - Pullman campus
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What is policy?
Prudence or wisdom in the management of affairs
Definite course or method of action selected from among alternatives and in light of given conditions to guide and determine present and future decisions
Who rely on policy and for what?
Governments and organizations rely on policy to guide the decision-making process and provide direction as the policy is implemented
What is the policy development process?
What does process evaluation involve?
Involves looking at the progression of the policy development experience (why the change occur or did not occur- a sort of road map)
What does Outcome Evaluation look at?
The changes that occur as a result of the policy (end product)
Why is there a need for criminal justice policy?
Changes in Criminal Justice policy are often a response to a need ora problem that faces the criminal justice system and society as a whole
Policy is then seen as a way to deal with the presence of crime and the handling of offenders
Huge expenditures (28.2 billion dollars) have had a positive impact on crime
Crime across the nation has decreased over the past 20 years
Negative consequences of criminal justice policies
Increased incarceration rate in prisons
Detrimental effects for certain populations (drug offenders and minorities)
Identifying and evaluating crime control
There is a crime problem in the US.
Billions of dollars are spent annually to control and prevent it on prisons, police, and courts
Sources of crime statistics
The FBI Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
Police report the crimes to the the FBI and the FBI compiles the statistics
Part 1 (serious) offenses
Homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assult, burglary, larceny, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson
Who are the criminal justice actors?
Executive branch, Legislative branch, and Judicial branch
Crime control and prevention
Prevention - proactive
Control - reactive
Overlap between the two
The term control is loosely used to refer to both reactive and preventive methods of dealing with crime
Four broad categories of crime
White Collar and Organized Crimes
Public Order Crimes
Is criminal law continually expanding?
Yes (ex: Patriot Act after 9/11)
What is the incidence of crime?
Depends on who you look at (certain people or groups of people-gender, age, race, and social status)
Where you look
Data sources for incidents of crime
Victimization surveys and UCR
Volume of Crime
Concerned with how many crimes take place
Geographic distribution of incidence of crime
Concerned with where it takes place
Temporal distribution of crime
Concerned with patterns over crime
How much crime the typical criminal will commit within a given time frame
The victimization paradox
People fear being victims of crime much more than their likelihood of being victimized would suggest
What are approaches to the crime problem?
Legislation (one of the most important)
What must we define before we can talk about the effectiveness of crime control in America?
The solution (means to address the crime problem)
The desired outcome (or the end result)
Crime Control Program with multiple outcomes
Having a crime control program that has many outcomes is good
The difficulty of having this is that it complicates the evaluation process
Solutions tied to specific outcomes is preferred
The definition of the crime problem needs to strike a balance between what two things?
Over-specificity and vagueness
Ex: Two officers instead of one officer patrols
Overly-specific definition of crime
Strategy aimed at reducing second-degree burglary
Ex: Police departments "decentralizes" by eliminating one sergeant's position
Strategy aimed at reducing all types of crimes simultaneously
Ex: Community policing is the solution to crime
The means to the end
The end result. May influence crime, costs, citizen satisfaction, fear
How do you know if the crime control interventions a success or failure?
We conduct an evaluation to know
Types of evaluation
Process evaluation and outcome evaluation
Process of evaluation
These are a means of determining whether a program or policy is operating as it should
A method of determining whether some form of social action is a success or failure
Classical experiments for evaluating crime policy
Treatment and Control group (with random assignment to each group)
Pretest and Posttest (measurement before and after)
Controlled intervention (researcher controls)
These are not done in Crm J
Macro level crime control
Intended to affect a large geographic area and/or number of units (ex: cities, counties, states, or nations)
Cross sectional research
Takes place at a single point in time
Micro level crime control
Concentrated in a small geographic area
General Rule for crime control
The more resistant to a uniform definition an approach to the crime problem is, the more likely it that such an approach will be researched at the micro-level
What is a problem with proactive, directed, and creative policy?
It may be effective but it often pushes the problem into the surrounding areas
Problem pushed into surrounding areas
Benefits pushed into the surrounding areas (free rider effect)
The tentative nature of scientific knowledge
It is not etched in stone
It is not timeless
New studies come alone
Alternative research designs are employed
New data becomes available
Alternative measures are used
The extent to which a researchers finding can be carried over to another location or series of locations
What is the problem with generalization (alternative settings)
Not all programs and interventions are generalizable. It may work here but not there.
What is the unit of analysis?
Represents the objects under study for example people, groups, organizations, cities, counties, states, and nations
Takes place when the researcher followed the same groups of people for a longer period of time and is more desirable
Examples of funding that either disappeared or won't be around forever
the COPS Office, Community policing, project safe neighborhoods
When research loses objectivity and is used to further a political agenda, often in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary
Focusing research on what is trendy or popular at the given time, perhaps ignoring other worthy problems and avenues of inquiry
Evidence based justice
Use of the best available scientific evidence to guide criminal justice policy and practice
What are operational perspectives?
Consist of views about how the justice system should operate or how it does operate
Due Process is primarily concerned with what? How are suspects considered?
People's rights and liberties
All suspects are considered innocent until proven guilty (legal truth) than on factual guilt
What should the governments first priority be under due process?
Maximize human freedom rather than to control crime
Whether a person is guilty according to law
Whether a person actually committed the crime for which he/she is charged
Four ideals of due process
The criminal process should look like an obstacle course
Quality is better than quantity
Formality is preferred over informality
A great deal of faith is put in the Courts
What is Crime control primarily focused on?
On controlling crime and has an increased likelihood of violating civil liberties
What are the major aspects of crime control perspective rather than due process?
Uses the cost-benefit analysis to argue that the benefits to society of controlling crime outweighs the cost of infringing on some individuals' due process protections
Ends over means
Favors quantity over quality
Favors informality over formality (plea bargaining)
Faith in police
A group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent entities
Conditions of harmonious, orderly action
Is the criminal justice system really a system?
Some see it as a well-oiled machine
Others - a disorganized mess (different agencies with different priorities)
The funnel model of justice was put forth by who?
The 1967 President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice
What does the Funnel Model show?
The attrition of criminal cases
Large drop-off between the criminal event and police investigation
Characteristic of the system perspective
What are the four layers of the criminal justice wedding cake model?
First or top - celebrated cases
Second - Serious felonies
Third - Not-so-serious felonies
Fourth - Misdemeanors
What decides whether a case lands in the second or third layer of the criminal justice wedding cake model?
The liberal perspective on crime resembles what?
The due process perspective
The conservative perspective on crime resembles what?
the crime control perspectives
What do conservatives believe in regards to causes of crime?
Crime is a product of individual choice
People weigh costs and benefits
People make rational choices
Deterrence is possible
What do Hard-line liberals believe in regards to the causes of crime?
Crime is not a product of individual choices but of environmental factors (peer influence, dysfunctional families, blocked opportunities, stigmatization)
The exact opposite of what conservatives believe
What do conservatives think the consequences of crime for society is?
Crime offends the moral fabric or conscience of society
Several "victimless" crimes are amoral
Crimes create a tighter bond and unites people to fight against crime
What is the conflict thinkers view of consequences of crime for society?
Crimes do not create a bond among people but creates division between the rich and poor
Crime diverts the lower class;s attention away from the exploitation that they experience
The lower class thinks that crime is in their mist because of the people living in their communities rather than because crime has been defined by the rich or political elite to their disadvantage
Conservatives favor what kind of policies in regards to crime?
Deterrence polices which prefer getting tough with criminals, more criminal justice spending, tougher sanctions, and putting many offenders behind bars.
Liberals favor what kind of policies for crime control
Treatment and rehabilitation
What is the major assumption of consensus perspective?
Everyone in society agrees to be governed
Those who hold the view that society or the social system is based on consensus holds what certain beliefs?
Certain norms and values are the core elements of social life
People are committed to a certain social order
Solidarity is evident in the interaction between people of all groups
Everyone willingly submits to a legitimate authority, typically the government
A belief that self interest, coercion, division, opposition, exclusion, hostility, sectional interest, political power, contradictions, and other such factors best describe social interactions
What are the main ideas of the conflict perspective?
Language of capitalism
There is a small controlling class (bourgeoisie) and the oppressed masses (proletariat)
Crime occurs because it is defined as such
Crime deflects attention from real problems
Faith and Facts controversy
Some people prefer to make decisions based on myths, misinformation, and half-truths
Others feel we "need the facts"
Many crime control policies has been put into place based on faith rather than facts
Is crime control or revenue generation more prioritized by the criminal justice system?
Revenue generation may win out because many people earn their livelihood because of crime. Private businesses benefit from crime and public agencies have to deal with resource limitations.
What do policy makers think about?
Quick fixes, cost, political opposition, reelection and claiming credit
What do academics think about? (Ivory Towers)
Think of crime in terms of its root causes
Can offer suggestions that don't have any chance of succeeding in the real world
What are the goals of crime control?
Deterrence, Retribution (just deserts), Incapacitation, and Rehabilitation
Deterrence is concerned with what?
Discouraging criminal behavior
What are the two methods of viewing deterrence?
General and specific deterrence
Absolute and marginal deterrence
Retribution is concerned with what?
Punishment, payback, giving offenders their "just deserts"
Incapacitation amounts to what?
Removing criminals from society
Incapacitation can occur at what two stages of the criminal process?
Pretrial and post trial
Rehabilitation consists of what?
Planned intervention intended to change behavior
Traditional policing relied on what?
Throwing more money at the crime problem and is unimaginative
What are some of the traditional policing strategies?
Hiring more cops, freeing up resources, random/preventive patrol, rapid response, residency requirements, college degrees for cops/more educations
What is the underlying theory of traditional policing and what is the problem with it?
Deterrence theory which places emphasis on deterring criminals
It is a matter of fact that some people cannot be deterred
What is the problem with thinking that hiring more cops reduces crime?
The police presence is spread thin and the apprehension of additional criminals may actually give them impression that crime is on the rise.
What are some reasons for why hiring cops may not reduce crime?
Police officers can't work around the clock
Some cites have fewer police per citizen that others but less crime
Police are not necessarily capable of deterring certain types of crimes that are happening behind closed doors or out of public view
What 3 beats did the Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment split the city into?
Proactive beats (with a stepped-up police presence)
Reactive beats (police only responded to calls for services)
Control beats (business as usual)
What are the findings from the Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment?
No significant reductions in proactive beats. The finds are inconclusive
What did the Violent Crime Control Act of 1994 do?
Gave billions of dollars to local law enforcement (COPS office created)
100,000 new cops
Has the Violent Crime Control Act of 1994 made a difference?
One recent study concludes it has. Authors claimed that increases in hiring reduce violent and property crimes
What happens when the police go on strike?
Increase in crime during Helsinki, Finland police strike
Increase in crime during Montreal police strike
Both studies dealt with strikes far in the past
Today police are often prohibited by law from striking
Does hiring more cops work? (traditional policing)
Hiring more cops is not counterproductive and show that there is less crime when there are more cops
But we cannot conclude with 100% that hiring more cops reduces crime
Methods of freeing up resources (traditional policing)
Eliminating two officer patrols and replacing them with one officer patrols
Implementing 311 systems
Carefully examining what officers do while on the clock
What have studies on one verses two officer patrols concluded?
Patrol staffing mode has almost no effect on police effectiveness
Single-officer staffing increases visibility, but has almost no effect on crime
Two officer patrols are twice as costly as one officer patrols
Patrol activity levels are comparable between both staffing methods
Do 311 calls work?
Theres almost no research on 311 but the research available does show:
May reduce overall calls to 911
Does not reduce officer response time
Does not free up uncommitted blocks of time
Does patrol down time work?
Who knows, the evidence in favor of one verses two officer patrols, 311, and reducing patrol downtime is not encouraging
Is reactive policing effective and how do we know?
Not very effective
Not much of a link between crime rate and arrest rate
What are the two strains of research for Domestic Violence Arrests
Effect of anti-domestic violence laws on domestic violence
Mandatory arrest for domestic violence
Does rapid response work?
No clear relationship between response time and probability of arrest
Few crimes are "hot"
What are examples of private police?
Store detectives and security guards
Outnumber public police 3 to 1
Why would you use private police?
Mass private property
Public police ineffetive
Does private policing work?
Probably suffers the same fate of other policing methods
What are some arguments in favor of residency requirements?
Add to local tax base
Improved officer attentiveness to problems
Arguments against residency requirements
Restricted applicant pool
Threatens officer safety
What are the advantages for college degrees for cops?
Broader base for decision making
What are the arguments against college degrees for cops?
Restricted applicant pool
Education does not improve crime fighting abilities
What does the research show for college degrees for cops?
Don't know if crime is affected
May affect decisions to use force
What is the difference between proactive arrests and reactive arrests?
Reactive waits until call for services whereas proactive consists of police initiated arrests
What is the difference between proactive arrests and directed patrol?
Proactive focus is on criminals and crime whereas directed patrol is concerned with areas (hot spots)
Proactive is not based on possibility of crime being committed
What is the crackdown of targeting drug offenders?
Police flood an area known for problems and seek to remove the criminal element (it is the weeding in weed and seed)
What does the research show in regards to targeting drug offenders?
May not address root causes
May push crime into surrounding ares
May only fix the problem temporarily
May increase risk to those on drugs
May increase fear in the neighborhood
What is directed patrol?
Patrol with direction. Concentrating police presence in areas where it is needed most.
Is directed patrol of gun violence hot spots effective?
It does appear to be
Who put forth the broken windows thesis in 1982 and what did they argue?
Wilson and Kelling
If low levels of disorder and deviance are not prioritized, more serious crime will likely follow
What is the policy implication of Broken Windows?
Agressive enforcement of low-level offenses
Does the broken windows thesis work?
Probably, but there isn't much research
What are police-corrections partnerships and does it work?
Partnership between either probation or parole officers and police officers
Evidence is inconclusive if it works or not.
What are multi jurisdictional drug task forces, an example, and do they work?
Law enforcement agencies often join together to combat the drug problem
California's CAMP program
We don't know
What is Compstat and does it work?
New style of management aimed at promoting accountability in police departments
Relies on computer analysis, frequent "progress" meetings, and accountability for supervisors
Remains to be seen
How is probation and parole means and ends?
Means in the sense that they promote a number of different goals, including rehabilitation, treatment, and reintegration
Ends in the sense that they represent final dispositions
What are the two roles that probation departments play?
Protection of public safety
Probation is either what two types of ruling and why is this important?
Executive - stress enforcement
Judicial - stress treatment
Parole is what kind of act and is granted by who
Administrative act (not judicial)
Parole board or parole commission
Parole is usually administered under what?
The state Department of Corrections or ties equivalent agency
Parole is supposed to provide what two things?
Supervision and service
What are two types of probation and parole conditions?
What are some examples of common probation and parole conditions
Desist from crime
Submit to drug testing
Live in same location
Submit to visits by probation/parole officer
What is the tension between service and supervision?
Caseloads have increased and more people are being put on probation/parole
Less funding because it is perceived as soft on crime
Parole and Recidivism
Nearly half of parolees are returned to prison and the highest risk period is during the first year
Probation and Recidivism
Probation looks effective for reconnections and re-incarcerations
Probation does not look effective for arrests and technical violations
Are parolees equipped to reenter society?
Treatment needs not met
Employers hesitant to hire parolees
Rights stripped away
Consequences to Society of Prisoner Reentry
Uphill batter with respect to securing employment
Family break-ups from prison
Problems associated with cycling in and out of prison
Learned criminal behavior,
Breakdown in community bonds from contined impriosonment
Heath problems in the parolee population
Improvement of Probation and Parole
Carefully supervise the most dangerous offenders
Deliver quality treatment
Identify and respond quickly to probation violations
Establish credible intermediate sanctions
Adopt community-centered approach
Probation/parole officers need to interact more with victims, law enforcement, offenders
Intermediate sanctions are how compared to prison and traditional probation
More punitive than traditional probation but less punitive than prison
What is a major criticism of intermediate sanctions and what does it mean?
The criticism is that they widen the criminal justice net
More and more people are being put under some form of social control
Political risk aversion
What are three categories of intermediate sanctions?
Structure, discipline, and challenge
What do community restraints do and what are some examples of it?
Restrict the mobility of known offenders
Intensive Supervision Probatio and Home confinement/electronic monitoring
What is intensive supervision probation (ISP) and what does the research show?
Reducing caseloads for effective monitoring
There is higher recidivism and tech violations among ISP participants compared to control
Although, some research shows that ISP with treatment can be effective
Why home confinement and electronic monitoring?
Both methods presumable minimize damaging effects of prison
Cost-effective in comparison to prison
What are the two varieties of GPS monitoring?
Active and Passive
What is the most common method of imposing structure and discipline and is it effective?
Most studies show that they are ineffective
What are hybrid intermediate sanctions and some examples?
Combine traditional community corrections strategies with harsher or less serious sanctions
Shock probation, halfway houses, day reporting
What is shock probation and does it work?
Sometimes called slip sentencing and usually amounts to sentencing a criminal to prison/jail followed by a period of supervised release
The evidence seems to suggest it does not but may work for first time offenders
What are halfway houses and what does the research show?
Often called community residential centers, pre-release centers, or restitution centers
Halfway between prison and returning the community
The research is mixed
What are day reporting centers and why report?
Requires probationers, parolees, and pretrial releases to report to a specific facility on a regular basis
Monitoring, treatment, and service
What is individual crime control?
Individuals engage in many crime control activities including:
Purchasing guns for self-defense
Risk avoidance behavior
How can gun prevalence be measured?
General Social Survey (cannot be used to arrive at local-level estimates)
Suicides committed with a gun
Homicides committed with a gun
Subscriptions to gun-oriented magazines
What source should be believed (how often are guns used in self-defense) and what limitations does it include?
NCVS, because it is more conservative and consistent
Limitations are respondents must first indicate a victimization , "prevented" crimes not counted, may be a desire to conceal gun use
What has aggregate research found at the state/local relationship between gun ownership and burglary?
Increased gun ownership was associated with less burglary
More burglaries where there were more guns
Does armed resistance lead to a reduction in the completion of a crime?
More effective than unarmed
Do criminals care if there is armed resistance?
Burglars steer clear from "hot" burglaries for fear of getting shot
Burglars are also attracted to guns because "a gun is money with a trigger"
Did it reduce burglary in the 1982 city of Kennesaw, GA to keep a gun in every household?
Researchers have not been able to tell because levels of gun ownership in the city did not change markedly after the ordinance when into effect
Activities people engage in to minimize their chances of being victimized
What are some examples of risk-avoidance
Avoid certain areas
Staying inside at night
Driving instead of walking
Parking in certain location
Risk Management behaviors and examples
Include actions people take when they know they can't fully avoid the potential for victimization
Self defense training, resistance
What are the two forms of forceful resistance?
Forceful physical resistance
Forceful verbal resistance
What does the research show in regards to forceful resistance?
Forceful physical resistance can reduce the likelihood of crime completion, but can increase victim injury, especially in rapes
Forceful verbal resistance appears more effective
What are the two forms of non forceful resistance?
Efforts to push offender away
Pleading with offender to stop and/or reasoning with the offender
First is more effective than the second
How do families influence delinquency/youth victimization?
Children born the teenage mothers are at a higher ricks of delinquency
Parental substance abuse
Parental rejection of children, abuse and neglect, and parental conflict
What are some ways government/other agencies have begun to target ineffective parenting?
Strengthening families program
Home visits by trained professionals, usually during the prenatal period
Parten training in conjunction with day care and or preschool programs
Parent training/education in a clinical setting
School based parent training
Community based parent training
What is the most effective way of targeting ineffective parenting?
Family Preservation Therapy- -when is it initiated and does it work?
Divorce/broken homes are associated with youth delinquency
States when divorce is imminent and child starts to act inappropriately
Unclear if it works
What is multi systemic therapy and does it work?
Community and family based treatment that targets sources of antisocial behavior in delinquent juveniles
Usually occurs after signs of delinquency present themselves
The research is very encouraging
Are increases in welfare payments associated with reductions in crime?
There is an inverse relationship between welfare spending and crime
What are two ways to view community crime control?
Crime control through financial assistance to communities
Community development block grants
Weed and seed
Crime control by members of the community
What is the social ecological model of crime?
Seeks to explain aggregate crime rates
What are the predictors of the social ecology of crime
Poverty (social ecology)
Crime is concentrated in impoverished areas. May be mediated by other factors
How does Mobility and change (social ecology) influence crime?
May lead to a reduction in informal social control
Percentage of black in a community is associated with the incidence of violent crime but may be mediated by family composition, poverty, and mobility
How could Population Density influence crime?
(not the same as mobility)
More crime where there are more people
Crowding could lead to frustration
What is the pathway to crime through familial breakdown
Low parental supervision
What is concentrated disadvantage?
Combination of Poverty, family disruption, and racial composition
How does crime affect a community structure?
Decisions to move
What are the three efforts for give financial assistance to communities?
Community Development Block Grants
Weed and Seed
What are enterprise zones and are they effective?
Are economically depressed areas where incentives are provided to employers such that job development is encouraged.
Mostly looked at employment levels and job creation, not crime
What does Weed and Seed do?
Contains an enforcement component
Is run by the US justice department
Is concerned with prevention intervention and treatment
What are two methods of crime control in schools?
Targeting the school environment
Why would it be important to target the school environment?
Poor run schools may be breeding grounds for crime
What is building administrative capacity, what are some examples, and is it effective?
Refers to methods of improving administration
Program Development Education and School Development Program
It appears very effective
What does Normative Education refer to, what are some examples, and does it work?
Refers to setting norms, setting student guidelines, and setting expectations for behavior
Examples are Safe Dates Program, Start Taking Alcohol Seriously
The evidence is encouraging
What are some examples of nontraditional methods of classroom management and instruction and what does the research show?
Altering teacher/student ratio, accommodating different learning styles, and increase in out-of-class activities
It is mixed, probably because of the diversity of interventions in this area
What are some examples of targeting students?
Does DARE work?
Almost all evaluations of DARE show it is a failure
Why does DARE persist?
Public image and other political motivations
Does GREAT work?
Shows more promise than DARE, but the evidence is scant and mixed.
What is behavior modification concerned with and does it work?
Changing behavior through a system of rewards and punishment
It appears to work well with at-risk individuals, such as disruptive students
What are some other methods of crime control in Schools?
Student Assistance Program
Mentoring and tutoring programs
Job training in schools
Schoo-based recreation/after-school programs
What does environmental criminology assume, what does it focus on, and what is it concerned with?
There is little that can be done to change criminals.
It focuses on what can be done about the crime
It is concerned with how settings translate criminal inclination into action
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