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Prejudice has gone from more explicit forms to more implicit forms. Lynching and other violence has gone by the wayside in favor of more subtle forms of prejudice. For instance, incarceration rates for Black men have gone up a lot since 1960. Something that caused these changes desegregation.
Psychological approach- balance between individual and society (compromise between big picture and individual)
History- based on historical documents
sociology- big picture of prejudice in society (not as much focus on individual) (social behavior is based on the given accepted social/societal climate)
The psychological approach deals more with context such as religion, mood, and culture.
What does a social cognitive focus imply about prejudice?
~If a person is related to certain religions, personalities, goals, ideologies, moods.
Prejudice: A biased evaluation of group based on real or imagined characteristics. (affect) (emotion)
Stereotype: A set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group. (cognition)
Discrimination: negative behavior toward someone based on group membership (behavior)
What is the difference between a ‘cultural’ and an ‘individual’ stereotype?
Does the distinction make sense to you, and do you think it matters?
Cultural - What a group as a whole feels towards another group
Individual - What one person feels about a group
-Yes, as for the Israeli/Palestinian conflict...the two cultures may “all” hate each other but then an individual Israeli could have,say, a Palestinian uncle for some reason on a different side of the fence, thus making them a) think differently of the Palestinians or b) classify their uncle as the deviant of the group. Basically, individuals make up the whole, so in my opinion varying individual views throughout a culture do matter.
Cognitive miser - People value efficiency over accuracy in perceptions of the world. The reason for this is to avoid anxiety that comes with uncertainty.
Motivated tactician - Motivations are based on a social context, motivation(personal goals) affect perception of out-groups.I would think that most of us are motivated tacticians.
How we explain behavior. It attempts to explain the origins of prejudice and stereotypes by figuring out if they are personality traits or related to external factors.
-The Fundamental Attribution Error is when people attribute unknown internal characteristics (like a personality trait) to another person in response to their action, rather than considering external factors. For example, that homeless person is lazy because they aren’t at work. (They may have just been laid off, and have had a difficult time finding a job).
Summarize the basic ideas behind intergroup dialogue. How is dialogue different from
Intergroup dialogue: the point is to see other people’s perspectives, expand your own.
debate: a formal discussion in which opposing arguments are put forward. Someone wants to “win”.
dialogue: discussion directed toward exploration of a particular subject or resolution or a particular problem.
Grouping people by the most immediate things we notice:
What is social identity (theory) and why is it important?
Provide examples of some of your own social identities and what functions they serve.
What binds the self to social groups, it allows us to “belong”. One of our basic human needs….
When we all chant “it’s great to be a tennessee vol” at football games, this is an example of embracing social identity in order to feel good, ya know, not feel alone, feel like something greater than yourself.
What is optimal distinctiveness theory, and how is it similar to and different from socialidentity theory? What are the so called ‘competing needs’?
Ingroup favoritism is an unintentional process in which a person holds favoriting bias toward another person in their ingroup over a person in the outgroup. If a Black and White person are charged with the same crime, and the judge happens to be in a golfing group with the White criminal, the judge may award the Black criminal a harsher sentence. Derogation of outgroups only occurs when ingroups feel threatened by the outgroup.
Minimal groups refer to when people are divided by arbitrary and otherwise insignificant criteria. In class, an example was given of dividing people based on their preference in abstract artists; you could even divide people by assigning them to something like “Group A” and “Group B”. It’s demonstrated that people tend to prefer their own group. This tells us that in-group favoritism occurs very easily and almost universally.
Research by Tajfel and colleagues found that even being arbitrarily assigned to groups will lead to ingroup favoritism or outgroup homogeneity
Norms: Suggests prejudice is accepted and expected.
Institutional racism: racist attitudes towards the vast majority of people in a society.
How might a self-esteem motive cause someone to express prejudice? what research shows this?
Having high self esteem may allow some people to feel higher above others and think that they have a more sophisticated self worth.
The Fein and Spencer study showed that those who did not self affirm rated JAPs (Jewish American Princesses) to a lesser degree and those who had their ego (self-esteem) threatened rated gay males more negatively. Being prejudiced and putting down another group can also raise self esteem
Realistic conflict is hostility between groups that is caused by direct competition for limited resources. An example can be seen when 2 groups of boys at a camp (Robber’s Cave) competed for scarce resources and hostility arose between the two groups. Relative deprivation is the perception of a relative disadvantage of one’s own group. An example of this is you wanting something, seeing someone else have it, and thinking you deserve it. An example of this is the integration housing project where they had projects set next to mansions causing property crime and theft.
In the book and lecture, scapegoating was suggested as a source of prejudice. Describe the ideas underlying scapegoating. Do you think it can explain part of peoples’prejudice against Blacks, Hispanics, and Arab-Muslims?
Scapegoating is blaming outgroups for personal failure to obtain goals. The idea is that when an individual is stopped from attaining a goal, they feel anger which can be similar to a feeling of a disliked group. Both the frustrating agent and the outgroup arouse similar emotions, and tend to become associated in the memory. I think scapegoating does explain prejudice against others, because in the past we’ve learned that these people were “bad”, which in turn, has stayed in people’s memories which have been passed down through generations. For example, when cotton prices were down in the post-slavery south, many more lynches took place than usual.
Sub-typing is when we create separate categories for members of a group that do not fit our stereotypes. For example (the one the textbook gives), Michael Jackson does not fit many african-american stereotypes, and many people simply think of him as ‘an exception’. This allows people to discard stereotype-disconfirming evidence. Another example would be Tiger Woods, he is a deviant or exception to mainstream Black stereotypes.
What does ‘selective attention’ have to do with stereotype maintenance?
Stereotypes enable us to make quick judgments of others by using the least amount of cognitive effort possible. When we learn that the way we think or categorize others is illogical then we will change the way we think about the stereotype inconsistent information. We do this through selective attention, only paying attention to information that confirms what we already believe about the stereotype, and paying no attention to stereotype inconsistent information. This in turn causes us to expect certain actions from the stereotyped people, and when we are selective and confirm those certain actions, we strengthen our stereotypes.
The perception that out group members are more similar to each other than they really are. We do this to more easily interpret ambiguous information. This can only be negative? Simplifies our environment and enhances our self concept
The more attention we pay to negative aspects of a certain group makes these instances more accessible in memory and become more likely to influence judgments of the targeted group. When making an assessment about a member of a stereotyped outgroup, will draw on our beliefs and past knowledge of that particular group to judge them; Macrae et al study with labeling skinheads.
They allow people to count stereotypes as consistent information while ignoring inconsistent information. When one member of a specific group acts a certain way, then their behavior is automatically attributed to the group, thus confirming the stereotype (Wow, girls suck at math)
How do our own motivations influence whether we stereotype someone?
Motivation is the process that energizes and directs behavior towards a goal. Motivation can take 2 forms: 1. People can be motivated to avoid bias, thus relying much less on stereotypes and 2. People can be motivated to perceive people according to expectations that they already have, thus relying highly on stereotypes. Regardless, we are either motivated to stereotype or not too, depending on our own characteristics.
Integral affect: originates within intergroup situation, is about the group. Ex: Gay men make me feel uncomfortable, those are emotions you have towards a group.
Incidental affect: originates outside intergroup situations. Not about a group.
Describe 3 different kinds of prejudice that involve different kinds of integral affect. Why might the different prejudices evoke different affective responses?
One type of prejudice is disgust and fear of another group being contagious. Another type is fear in the form of intergroup anxiety when there is discomfort and anxiety associated with interactions with members of conflicting groups. The third type is ambivalence in the form of aversive racism which is believing that one is egalitarian but still harboring prejudice. These different prejudices involve different feelings, thoughts, and fears which all evoke different reactions and responses.
How does mood (positive and negative) influence stereotyping?
Positive mood reduces systematic processing. Happy people process information less analytically and rely more on stereotypes because they are less motivated to expend the cognitive effort required to avoid stereotypes. These people are more likely to stereotype when under increased cognitive constraints, like distractions. Angry people make more stereotypic judgments whereas sad people do no differ from neutral people. Mildly sad people engage in more careful cognitive processing and are less likely to rely on stereotypes.
This theory states that fear of one’s mortality increases worldview defense which fosters nationalism, and increases preference for strong leaders and ingroup favoritism. When people are fearful they tend to dislike outgroup members more thus encouraging prejudice
What is the difference between automatic/implicit prejudice and controlled/explicit prejudice? Do they have different sources and different ways of manifesting?
Implicit is unintentional and unconscious whereas explicit is conscious and controlled. Implicit is based on past experiences with no conscious awareness and should not be an explicit measure because it differs from conscious cognition. Implicit comes from memory and past influences and explicit is expressed openly.
Several studies were described in class that provide evidence for implicit stereotyping.Choose one and describe it, and discuss whether you think its findings apply to real life.
The implicit association test is a categorization task that uses four categories of black, white, pleasant, and unpleasant. Participants were probed with either a picture of a white/black face and either a pleasant/unpleasant word and were told to use a left or right key to indicate good or bad. The results indicate that both blacks and whites are biased against blacks. I think this has to do with society as well as past influences stereotyping blacks with negative aspects. It is installed in everyone’s heads that black people are associated with bad things. A real life case is Fergueson in which the police officer thought Davis (black man) was reaching for a gun when he was reaching for his wallet. In the blink of an eye (same time as priming tests) he shot Davis numerous times.
What is the difference between implicit measures of prejudice and explicit measures of prejudice? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? How do implicit and explicit measures relate to one another?
Implicit tests measure attitudes and beliefs without participant’s awareness that they are being measured. These measures reflect the unintended activation of information in memory. Advantages of implicit tests are to eliminate demands of social desirability and selfpresentation, and to predict nonverbal behaviors. Disadvantages of implicit tests include failure to predict behavior, and low reliability. With explicit measures, participants are aware of the nature of the task. Advantages of explicit tests are that behavior is predicted and controlled, tests are practical and easy, and are correlated with each other. Disadvantages of explicit tests are the likelihood of lying. They relate because they can both measure aspects of prejudice and stereotyping.
What is the dissociation model of prejudice? According to it, what distinguishes prejudiced people from non-prejudiced people? How does the MODE model challenge the dissociation model?
According to the dissociation model, there is no correlation between explicit measures of prejudice and implicit stereotyping in lowprejudiced people. Highprejudiced people should show high correlation between prejudice scores and implicit stereotyping. The difference between prejudice and nonprejudice people is that prejudice people let stereotypes influence their behavior whereas non prejudiced people prevent themselves from stereotyping through explicit processes. The mode model states that motivation and opportunity determines attitude behavior processes and that explicit process can override implicit processes. It suggests that some people are extremely racist, some people are mildly racist, and some people are not racist at all.
What is stereotype suppression and rebound? Describe a situation in which stereotype suppression might be an effective prejudice control strategy.
Stereotype suppression is putting forth a conscious effort to not think about someone in terms of a stereotype. Rebound effect is when the unwanted stereotypic thoughts return with more intensity and frequency to influence the person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
If prejudice and stereotyping can be implicit—that is, unintentional and unaware—should we still hold people responsible for being prejudiced?
Implicit prejudice doesn’t necessarily mean that one is prejudiced; it can also indicate that people in a given society have knowledge of the cultural stereotypes for various groups which is automatically activated when the person thinks about the group.
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