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Beliefs about the self that guide the processing of self-relevant information are called
b. self schemas.
c. flashbulb memories.d. autobiographical memories
We observe a person's behavior. First, we make a quick personal attribution. Then, we adjust for the effects of the situation. This two-step process can be cited as a cause for the
a. trait negativity bias.
b. primacy effect.
c. fundamental attribution error.
d. averaging model of information integration.
Which of the following is true of people with very high self-esteem?
a. When their esteem is threatened, they tend to make a better impression on others.
b. They are more likely to become angry or violent in response to criticism.
c. Their strong sense of self makes them less susceptible to self-defeating behaviors.
d. They tend to show more emotional stability in the face of rejection.
A public record of the methods social psychologists use to test their hypotheses is important primarily because it
a. encourages social psychologists to conduct more basic, rather than applied, research.
b. ensures that the right people get credit for the research.
c. allows other social psychologists to attempt to replicate the findings.d. provides a solid theoretical foundation for social psychological research
Jenna is fairly high-strung. This attribute conflicts more with Jenna's ideal self than with her ought self. Jenna is more likely to experience ______ than she is to experience ______.
a. anxiety; sadness
b. disappointment; fear
c. fear; anxiety
d. sadness; disappointment
Which correlation implies the strongest relationship?
A high school class goes to the Metropolitan Museum of Art and enjoys one of the exhibitions very much. If the teacher wanted the students to gain accurate self-insight regarding why they liked the exhibition, the teacher should ask the students to
a. compare the different exhibitions they had seen.
b. discuss the historical context in which the paintings were done.
c. focus upon their feelings about the paintings in the exhibition.
d. give a list of reasons for why they liked particular paintings in the exhibition.
Social psychologists tend to prefer which of the following research methods?
a. Descriptive research
c. Correlation research
Among your group of friends, Chandler is the only one who is ever late for your weekly game of Twister. You've noticed that he is late every week and that he is also late for church, class, parties, movies, weddings, sporting events, and dental appointments. According to Kelley's covariation model of attribution, Chandler's behavior would be described as
a. low in consensus, high in consistency, and high in distinctiveness.
b. low in consensus, low in consistency, and low distinctiveness.
c. low in consensus, high in consistency, and low in distinctiveness.d. high in consensus, high in consistency, and high distinctiveness.
Self-esteem is all of the following except
a. a single, stable disposition.
b. responsive to success and failure.
c. an affectively charged component of the self-concept.
d. a variable state of mind.
Which of the following is not a self-serving cognition used to enhance self-esteem?
a. People tend to take credit for their successes, but not their failures.
b. People bolster their optimism by linking their individual attributes to desirable outcomes.
c. People underestimate the probability of positive outcomes and overestimate the probability that they will experience negative outcomes.
d. People overestimate the extent to which they can control personal outcomes.
Suppose the correlation between the number of times couples go to the movies and the number of times they go out to dinner is +0.79. Among the following conclusions, which one is not consistent with this computation?
a. There is a strong positive correlation between the number of times couples go to the movies and the number of times they go out to dinner.
b. The less often that couples go to the movies, the less often they go out to dinner.
c. Because the correlation coefficient is less than 1.0, the association between these two variables is very weak and probably unreliable.
d. The more often that couples go to the movies, the more often they go out to dinner.
Jeanette, who is suffering from breast cancer, is most likely to feel better about her situation if she compares herself to which of these other patients?
a. Jewel, who doesn't have breast cancer and is much younger than Jeanette
b. Justine, who doesn't have breast cancer, but is approximately the same age as Jeanette
c. Jillian, who also has breast cancer but is not responding well to treatmentd. Joann, whose breast cancer seems to be in remission and is being sent home
Which of the following is true of correlation research?
a. It is a powerful way to establish causal relationships between variables.
b. It allows an experimenter to control extraneous variables.
c. It is limited to the study of variables that can be measured in the laboratory.
d. It permits researchers to determine whether one variable is predictive of another.
Mary Ann is a high school student in the United States who wants to determine whether her clothes are fashionable. According to social comparison theory, Mary Ann would tend to look to which of the following groups to assess how fashionable her clothes are?
a. College students
b. International high school students
c. Other U.S. high school students
d. Models in a fashion magazine
An individual who tends to self-verify is more likely to be _______ than is an individual who does not.
a. high in public self-consciousness
b. more introspective
c. a low self-monitor
d. schematic with regard to many aspects of the self-concept
According to the Cooley’s looking-glass model of self-concept development, the self-concept develops
a. quickly, but is quite fragile and subject to change.
b. from one's physical appearance.
c. slowly, reaching its complete form only in old age.
d. from the way one is viewed by others.
The tendency to perceive members of an outgroup as less variable, or more similar to one another, than members of the ingroup is called the
a. minimal group effect.
b. outgroup homogeneity effect.
c. ingroup homogeneity effect.
d. contrast effect.
According to social role theory, gender differences in social behavior are the result of
a. the forces of natural selection.
b. biologically based differences in social dominance.
c. unrealistic expectations about how men and women should behave.
d. the unequal gender-based division of labor.
Traits that suggest the presence of other traits and that exert a powerful influence on final impressions are called
a. confirming traits.
b. central traits.
c. implicit traits.
d. prime traits.
Kelley's theory of attribution suggests that, in trying to discern personal characteristics from behavioral evidence, people
a. behave like scientists and engage in informal experiments.
b. usually attribute behavior to both personal and situational factors.
c. use cognitive heuristics improperly.d. fail to adequately consider consensus information
Which of the following questions would a social psychologist be least likely to study?
a. Have attitudes toward gun control in the U.S. changed in the last five years?
b. What qualities do people look for in a romantic partner or friendship?
c. Why do people sometimes sabotage their own performance?
d. What kinds of persuasion techniques are the most effective?
Which of the following has not been demonstrated in research on counterfactual thinking?
a. Positive mood prompts counterfactuals about how much worse things could have been.
b. The things we fail to do are more likely to prompt counterfactuals than the things we do.
c. Counterfactual thoughts can influence how we feel about an event.d. Negative mood prompts counterfactuals about how much better things could have been
Helene is schematic concerning honesty. She is likely to do all of the following except
a. notice the honest and dishonest behaviors of others.
b. consider honesty a central part of her self-concept.
c. see herself as more honest than most other people.
d. engage in strategic self-presentation more than most other people.
Jasper is feeling guilty and ashamed because he did not help his mother paint the house. Jasper is most likely suffering from a discrepancy between what two aspects of the self?
a. The ought self and the actual self
b. The ideal self and the ought self
c. The actual self and the real self
d. The ideal self and the actual self
Once a researcher has a particular research question in mind, the next step is to
a. consult the university Institutional Review Board.
b. search the existing literature for related research.
c. develop a theory to answer the question.
d. select a random sample of participants to test the question.
Which of the following does not appear to be associated with low self-esteem?
a. The expectation of failure
b. A sense of pessimism about the future
c. The ability to effectively resist peer pressure
d. A reduced ability to ward off disease
Which of the following is most consistent with the notion that memory is biased rather than objective?
a. When asked about her college experience, most of Jennifer's memories are about her first day of college and her graduation.
b. Jordan will never forget the day when he heard about Princess Diana's death on the news.
c. Jessica recalls that she has always hated meat, even though she just recently became a vegetarian.
d. John spent most of his 65th birthday party reminiscing about his old college days.
For which of the following questions would a researcher be most likely to use descriptive methodology?
a. Is memory for television commercials influenced by the content of the programs in which the commercials appear?
b. Does the consumption of alcohol lead to increased aggressiveness?
c. Is there any relationship between taking social psychology courses and happiness later in life?
d. Do banks tend to offer heterosexual couples lower interest rates on home mortgages than homosexual couples?
All of the following encourage people to perceive others as consistent with prior stereotypes except when
a. the behavior of the target is ambiguous.
b. the target belongs to a relatively small outgroup.
c. the target's behavior is very different from the perceiver's expectations.
d. the perceiver's ability to process information is compromised.
. ~What affects the way we perceive ourselves and others? ~How do we influence each other? ~What causes us to like, love, help, and hurt others? ~How does social psyc help us understand questions about law, business, and health?
Social psychology, unlike common sense, uses the scientific method to test theories.
it is increasing because how individuals are influenced depends on their culture and it is so that we can more clearly see behavioral differences and similarities.
the larger the number, the stronger association and thus the better prediction.
in order to test hypothesis and manipulate or measure variables.
1. Can a causal inference be drawn from a correlational design?
Can you infer causation from an experiment?
internal validity because it can change/determine the entire experiment.
Introspection (looking inward to discover yourself), Self-Perception (learning about ourselves by watching out reactions to different things), Other people (social comparison), autobiographical memories (although memory is not always very reliable), and culture (where we are raised brings up assumptions of how we are supposed to be).
Studies show that people reported having different attitudes depending on their behavior toward those objects. Studies also say humans are so busy processing information that we fail to understand our own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and we overestimate the positives. Although it is said to have some credibility because no one knows us better than we know ourselves.
Two- factor theory of emotion says that the experience of emotion is based in what two factors?
What are self-schemas, and how can they influence the way we perceive info.
The ________ theory is the theory that our self-esteem is defined by the match or mismatch between how we see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves.
how does self-awareness influences feelings about the self.
Becoming too self-focused, trying too hard, and thinking too much can result in “choking”. Like a basketball player undergoing too much pressure and choking, therefore losing control at the last minute and becoming unable to finish the play.
(positive or) negative behaviors toward an individual based on their group members
What is Prejudice
What is positive or negative cognitions about members of social groups
What are the Formation of Stereotypes?
Historically based: originate in real historical event
Politically based: a socially supplied rationalization for group-based economic and social differences
Culturally based- actual differences in cultural patterns of values, goals and assumptions about personhood between groups
What is Social categorization
____ group- those we associate ourselves with
_____group- those we do not associate ourselves with
What are Advantages of social categorization?
What are Disadvantages of social categorization?
When we stereotype people, ______ exaggerates differences between one’s ingroup and salient outgroups. It also ______ perceived differences within the outgroup.
Target attributes that encourage changes in stereotypic beliefs are
Prejudice and discrimination differ in that _______ is a positive or negative affective response based on group membership, while _______ is typically a negative behavior toward an individual based on their group membership.
Two basic predictions arose from social identity theory:
1. Threats to one’s self-esteem heighten the need for ingroup favoritism2. Expression of ingroup favoritism enhances one’s self-esteem.
Ingroup favoritism is shown when the values or goals of someone in the ingroup are threatened by an outgroup member and
Gender stereotypes are what by peers, popular media, and one’s culture?
What is the theory that small gender differences are magnified in perception by the contrasting social roles occupied by men and women
Media effects: media depictions can influence viewers, often without the viewer’s realizing it. AND can cause what?
What is a form of seism characterized by attitudes about women that reflect both negative, resentful beliefs and feelings and affectionate and chivalrous but potentially patronizing beliefs and feelings.
What is a subtle form of prejudice that tends to surface when it is safe, socially acceptable, or easy to rationalize.
What is the Contact hypothesis
1. Equal status: he contact should occur in circumstances that give the two groups equal status
2. Personal interaction: the contact should involve one-on-one interactions among individual members of the two groups
3. Cooperative activities: members of the two groups should join together in an effort to achieve superordinate goals
4. Social norms: the social norms, defined in part by relevant authorities, should favor intergroup contact
What are examples that counter stereotypes,
Changes in the kinds of information perpetuates in one’s culture can alter what?
the experience of concern about being evaluated based on negative stereotypes about one’s group
Stereotype threat plays a crucial role in
People may start to disidenify with the person or place where they perceive this threat in order to what? And how can this be avoided?
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