4 main subfields. All aspects of humanity. Means of explaining variation in human adaptations.
study of global patterns in human culture in past and present.
study of human speech and language (including origins) Able to trace historical ties b/w languages
study of earlier cultures. Scientific recovery, analysis, interpretation of material remains of past societies. Artifacts, excavation.
study of human biology w/in the framework of evolution and emphasis on interaction b/w bio and culture.
study of anatomical and behavioral human evolution as shown in the fossil record.
measurement of human body parts; obvious differences among human population like skin color, body proportions, and shape of head and face.
study of skeletal material; interpretation of skeletal remains from archaeological sites, skeletal anatomy, bone physiology, etc.
related to osteology and applied approach to dealing with legal matters
Human Adaptation and Variation
traits of certain populations can be seen as having evolved as bio adaptations or adjustments to local environmental conditions
investigate evolutionary relationships b/w human populations and b/w human and nonhuman primates.
study of biology and behavior of nonhuman primates
approach to research; identify problem, state hypothesis, test hypothesis
explanation of a phenomenon; requires verification of falsification through testing
powerful explanation that withstands the test of time; testable
could be disproven
Great Chain of Being
Life is arranged from simplest to most complex species
Fixity of Species
(stasis) the world is fixed and unchanging
brought order to science;biological species concept: groups of plants and animals could differentiate by mating: genus- share similar characteristics, species- can mate and produce fertile offspring
father of modern taxonomy (science of classification);binomial nomenclature: two latin words to describe a plant or animal(genus then species), added class and order to be a 4 step system; Systema Natura- starting point of zoological nomenclature
Natural History: importance of change in universe and changing nature of species Adaptation: when groups migrate, physical altercations occur due to adapting to new environment First to say earth was older than 6000 yrs. (76,000)
first to explain evolutionary process if external environment changed, animals activity patterns change -increase or decrease of body parts (modification) Offspring acquired these characteristics; inheritance of acquired characteristics
introduced extinction to explain the disappearance of animals represented by fossils father of paleontology- studied fossils catastrophism- explained fossil record and the cause of earth's geological landscape
Wrote "Essay of Population" population is held in check by availability of resources influenced Darwin and Wallace in their discoveries of natural selection
Founder of modern geology; first to believe earth was a million yrs. old; geological uniformitarianism- geological processes seen today are the same that occured in the past
discovered the key to the evolutionary process; current species appeared from ancient species and their appearance was due to environmental factors sent a paper to Darwin explaining that evolution was due to natural selection and competition
naturalist; On the Origin of Species- foundation of evolutionary biology; studied finches on Galapagos Islands natural selection- survival of the fittest fitness- genetic contribution to next generation compared to other individuals
biological variation; competition; individuals with favorable variations have advantage; environmental context determine a beneficial trait; traits are inherited and passed down; succesful variations accumulate in a population over long time
entire genetic makeup of an individual or species
fundamental units of life in all living organisms
one celled organisms such as bacteria
three dimensional structure composed of carbs, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins
specified sub-unit within a cell that has a specific function and is usually separated enclosed within its own lipid bilayer
portion of cell within the cell membrane excluding the nucleus; semifluid materials and numerous structures
"cellular power plants"; generate most of cell's supply of ATP (source of chemical energy); involved in signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, and control of cell cycle and cell growth.
located in mitochondria
composed of a form of RNA called ribosomal RNA and protein found in cells cytoplasm essential to manfacture of proteins
structure found in all eukaryotic cells containing chromosomes
cellular components of body tissues such as muscle, bone, skin, nerve, heart, and brain> diploid cell (two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent)
sex cells, specifically involved in reproduction and are not important as structural components of the body> haploid cells(complete set of chromosomes); egg and sperm cells
double stranded molecule that contains genetic code, main component of chromosomes: basis of life; directs all cellular functions; two chains of nucleotides
composed of sugar, phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases> stacked on top of each other to form a chair that is bonded to another chain
twisted ladder formed by two strands of nucleotide chains: bases and bonds form rungs
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine (AGTC); base pairs can only be formed b/w A-T and C-G
for organisms to grow and injured tissues to heal, somatic cells must multiply and split into daughter cells
specialized proteins that initiate and direct chemical reactions in the body
complex, three dimensional molecules that function through their ability to bind to other molecules
directed by DNA; takes place outside cell nucleus in the cytoplasm at the ribosome
link together by peptide bonds to form proteins or that function as chemical messengers and as intermediates in metabolism
copy the DNA message into a form of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA) which can pass through nuclear membrane into cytoplasm; DNA splits; mRNA detaches and DNA recloses
mRNA gets DNA code and travels to ribosome: transfer RNA (tRNA) picks up amino acids and travels to ribosome where it meets mRNA and joins; amino acids form polypeptide chain which becomes the protein
every set of 3 mRNA bases that specify one amino acid
single stranded, contains ribose, and instead of thymine it contains uracil
encodes a chemical "blueprint" from a protein product, transcribed from a DNA template, carries coding info to sites of protein synthesis: ribosomes
small RNA molecule that transfers a specific active amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation
segment of DNA that specifies the sequence of amino acids in a particular protein
parts that code> transcribed into mRNA
non-coding DNA; removed in mRNA synthesis
change in the gene> occurs when the sequence of bases in a gene is altered, interfere with organisms ability to produce vital proteins
change in a single base in a DNA sequence, beneficial but can cause disease like sickle cell anemia: in evolution, most important source of new variations in populations
discrete structures composed of DNA and protein found only in the nucleus of cells
constricted portion of a chromosome; after replication, the two strands join here
carry genetic info for physical characteristics
specific location of a chromosome where DNA is
alternate forms of genes
number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
cell division of somatic cell: simple cell division; cells only divide once
cell division of gametes
only happens during meiosis, the process by which genetic material is broken and joined to other genetic material
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