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Macronutrients include which of the following?
Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
Which of the following is true of carbohydrates?
They are the main source of fuel for the body.
Which of the following are fat-soluble vitamins?
C. Vitamins A, D, E, and K
Which of the following is the body’s direct source of energy for cellular work?
C. Adenosine triphosphate
Which of the following terms describes the addition of a vitamin or mineral to a food or beverage in which it was not originally present?
Which of the following is recommended by the MyPlate food guidance system?
Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk.
Avoid oversized portions.
Drink water instead of sugary drinks.
Which two vitamins and two minerals must be included on the Nutrition Facts Panel?
B. Vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron
Which of the following factors should be considered first when developing an individualized nutrition plan for an athlete?
Health history of the athlete
All of the following are required on food labels except:
Statement of identity
Name and address of manufacturer
What does %DV stand for on food labels?
Percent Daily Value
A nutrition facts label gives the following serving information: total fat = 4g, total carbohydrates = 15g, total protein = 5g. How many calories are there per serving?
For a sport nutrition plan to be effective, which of the following should be considered?
A. The bioenergetic requirements of the athlete’s sport
B. The athlete’s health history
C. The athlete’s likes and dislikes in regard to food
The Tolerable Upper Limit for a nutrient is the:
Highest average amount that is unlikely to harm most people when consumed daily
The most energy dense of the macronutrients is:
Which of the following is a micronutrient?
Which DRI indicates the intake level needed to meet the nutrient requirement of most people within a healthy population?
Derek wants to eat enough yogurt in one meal to equal one serving from the MyPlate scheme of milk products. How much yogurt should he eat?
Nutrition Facts panels on all packaged foods are required to list which of the following nutrients?
A food product that claims to be “low fat” must have less than how many grams of fat per serving?
Which of the following foods would be recommended as a whole grain food item on MyPlate?
The last item on an ingredient list indicates what about that ingredient?
It is the least predominant ingredient
According to the MyPlate Plan, which of the following foods is grouped with milk and dairy products?
The Nutrition Facts Panel on a box of crackers indicates that one serving provides 220 calories, with 30 calories coming from fat. Calculate the percent of calories from fat for this product.
True/False: Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are also known as “energy nutrients.”
True/False: The %DV is based on the needs of an individual following a 3,000-calorie diet.
True/False: An athlete’s adherence to a meal plan will be greater when the plan is developed based on the foods that are best for an athlete’s performance rather than on the athlete’s food preferences.
Although digestion begins in the mouth, where does the majority of digestion occur?
The stomach and small intestine
From the small intestine, the remainder of the undigested, partially digested, and unabsorbed contents pass into the
Following digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine, simple sugars are absorbed through the intestinal wall and enter into the
Any unabsorbed and/or undigested polysaccharides, such as fiber, that pass through the small intestine
A. enter the large intestine, where bacterial digestion and gas formation can occur.
B. enter the large intestine, where no absorption of carbohydrates occurs.
C. pass through the system and are eliminated as feces.
Which of the following is a means of cellular absorption in which protein carrier molecules move substances across membranes driven only by differences in the concentration gradient?
Which of the following occurs once blood-borne simple sugars reach the cells of the liver?
Sugars that are not in the form of glucose are converted to glucose.
Glucose can be stored as glycogen in the liver cells.
Glucose can be released back into the bloodstream to be used for energy or stored by other cells in the body.
Once glucose has gained entrance into a muscle cell it can be
A. stored as glycogen.
B. converted into fat and stored.
C. used for energy.
Lipids exist in the body primarily in what form?
Fat digestion and absorption is for the most part completed by the time the food contents reach the
Which of the three macronutrients plays the biggest role in providing structure to the body?
Which of the following is true of athletes with celiac disease?
They cannot digest certain plant proteins, such as gluten.
Which of the following can occur in athletes who consume supplements containing large amounts of a single amino acid?
A. It can create competition for transport carriers among other amino acids.
B. It can cause the over absorption of one amino acid at the expense of another.
C. It may unknowingly interfere with their bodies’ ability to increase muscle mass.
Which of the following is a macronutrient that is also known as an energy nutrient?
The inability to maintain performance or work output is known as
Which of the following is the only food source that can be broken down via anaerobic glycolysis?
When lactic acid is produced quickly,
.it accumulates in the muscle.
fatigue ensues when levels get high enough.
the buildup causes a burning sensation in the muscles.
If carbohydrate intake is adequate to meet energy demands and carbohydrate stores are replenished after training,
then muscle protein will be spared.
Which energy system provides the majority of ATP needed during a 100-meter sprint?
The phosphagen system
A primary function of the digestive system is:
Breakdown and absorption of food molecules
Bob eats his breakfast and his GI tract begins the process of digestion. Which of the following indicate an appropriate sequence?
Mouth: esophagus: stomach; small intestine: large intestine, rectum
True/False: The small intestine makes up the majority of the length of the GI tract.
True/False: Individuals who have an insufficient level of lactase in their intestinal tract must avoid dairy foods in order to prevent gas and bloating.
True/False: Lipids are organic compounds that are insoluble in water.
True/False: Minerals, vitamins, and water need to be broken down into smaller units via digestion in order to be absorbed into the body.
True/False: The citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain are metabolic pathways that are common to the aerobic breakdown of all three energy nutrients.
True/False: Proteins are not normally a major source of energy unless energy expenditure is high and/or carbohydrate intake is low.
True/False: The demand for cellular ATP is less for low-intensity physical activity than for more powerful, fast movements.
Which of the following is a carbohydrate?
Which of the following is true of dietary fiber?
A. It is either soluble or insoluble.
B. It does not provide the body with calories.
C. It helps speed the passage of food through the intestines.
D. Some types may help lower cholesterol in humans.
Which of the following is a function of carbohydrates in the body?
B. They serve as a fuel source for the nervous system.
C. They spare muscle.
D. They help in the breakdown of fats.
E. They provide energy to muscles during exercise.
Which of the following is an appropriate recommendation regarding foods eaten within four hours of the start of competition?
The foods should have a low glycemic index.
During competition lasting longer than 90 minutes, which of the following would be an appropriate recommendation regarding carbohydrates?
C. Consume carbohydrates at a rate of about 30 to 60 grams per hour.
Which of the following is an artificial sweetener?
How does the amount of energy stored in carbohydrates compare to that stored as body fat?
Why is soluble fiber an important part of a healthy diet?
A. It decreases cholesterol levels in the body, thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Which of the following does enhance glycogen resynthesis after exercise?
A. High-glycemic-index foods
B. Liquid forms of carbohydrates
C. Beverages combining carbohydrates and protein
Over the course of a week, what impact does a low-carbohydrate diet (i.e., 40% of total calories) have on muscle glycogen levels and performance for an athlete who is training on a daily basis?
Becky is preparing for her first marathon and would like to know how to carbohydrate load properly. Which of the following is true regarding carbohydrate loading?
The process of carbohydrate loading typically starts 3 to 6 days prior to race day.
Which of the following would be the best overall choice as a carbohydrate source from the grains group?
C. Brown rice
When devising a postexercise carbohydrate recovery nutrition plan for athletes, which of the following should be considered?
C. The type (solid vs. liquid) of carbohydrates ingested
D. The amount of carbohydrates ingested
A. The timing of carbohydrate ingestion
To enhance glycogen storage after exercise, an athlete weighing 175 lbs. should consume how many grams of carbohydrate every 2 hours for 6 hours post exercise?
B. 80–87 grams
Which of the following meals would be the best suggestion for 1–4 hours before exercise?
B. Turkey sandwich and an apple
Which of the following carbohydrates is found in plain, fat-free milk?
A. The form of carbohydrate stored in liver and muscle tissue
True/False: Glycogen is a type of complex carbohydrate.
True/False: Insoluble fiber supplies many of the calories needed by the body for energy.
True/False: The crossover concept demonstrates the body’s preference for burning carbohydrates over fats as exercise intensity increases.
True/False: Dietary carbohydrates from fruits and vegetables not only serve as a source of energy, but also as a source of dietary fiber.
True/False: Eating fruits and vegetables that are low in fat and high in dietary fiber, vitamin A, or vitamin C may help prevent some cancers.
True/False: After exercise or competition, it is best that athletes begin consuming carbohydrates as soon as possible to help speed the recovery process.
Which of the following is a function of fats?
C. They add flavor and texture to foods.
D. They provide 9 calories per gram, helping athletes meet their daily energy needs.
A. They provide essential fatty acids for normal physiological functioning.
Which of the following is the predominant form of fats found in the human diet?
Which of the following is the RDA for fats?
D. An RDA has not been established for fats.
Which of the following is the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for fats?
B. 20 to 35%
An athlete should strive for an optimal HDL level, which is defined as
greater than or equal to 60 mg/dL.
When she prepares food, Felicia wants to use more sources of unsaturated fat than saturated fats. Which of the following fats supplies more unsaturated fat than saturated fat?
C. Olive oil
Solid fats generally have a high proportion of ____ fatty acids.
Which of the following foods is a naturally rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?
C. Corn oil
MCT may enhance endurance performance because:
C. They can be absorbed rapidly.
True/False: Lipids are hydrophobic and lipophilic.
True/False: Linoleic acid is the most common omega-6 fatty acid; it is found mainly in safflower, corn, and sunflower oils.
True/False: Cholesterol is considered to be an essential nutrient.
True/False: Trans fatty acids are not common in nature but are formed during the process of hydrogenation.
Which of the following is true of amino acids?
B. Conditionally essential amino acids become essential under unusual circumstances.
Which of the following is true of high-quality proteins?
A. They are also complete proteins.
B. They are derived primarily from animal sources.
C. They contain extra amino acids that can be used for making other amino acids.
D. They are more easily digested by the body compared to lower-quality proteins.
Which of the following best describes “complementing proteins”?
C. Protein sources that when mixed together supply all of the essential amino acids.
Which athletes should be most concerned about “complementing proteins”?
D. Athletes who are strict vegetarians and eat only plant foods
function of proteins in the body?
A. They help maintain the body’s fluid balance.
C. They make up the majority of many body tissues.
D. They play a role in immune functioning.
E. They help control the acidity of body fluids.
Which is true regarding protein intake?
A. The RDA for protein is 1.0 gram/kilogram of body weight.
Which of the following dietary and training factors affects protein recommendations?
A. Quality of dietary protein
B. Exercise intensity and duration
C. Carbohydrate availability
Which of the following food sources provides the most dietary protein?
Which of the following is true regarding protein supplements?
C. Protein supplementation is a good idea whenever athletes are traveling and do not have easy access to food.
Which of the following foods is a source of incomplete protein?
When combined, which of the following groups of foods forms a complementary protein
B. Kidney beans, rice, and sesame seeds
The primary functions of protein
B. Synthesizing hormones
C. Repairing damaged tissue
D. Maintaining fluid balance
A high dietary intake of protein will also increase an athlete’s need for:
Which of the following is considered a complete, high-quality protein source?
B. Turkey breast
If an athlete wants to gain lean body mass, he/she should:
D. Consume adequate calories and protein, while exercising regularly
The branched chain amino acids include all of the following except:
Amino acids that can be made by the body are called:
True/False: Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body and must come from the diet.
True/False: Protein intake in older adults (> 65 years of age) is not a major concern, because most cannot tolerate or adapt to the stresses imposed by training.
True/False: Vegetarian athletes have slightly higher protein needs compared to nonvegetarian athletes, due to the intake of incomplete protein food sources.
True/False: Athletes should strive to maintain adequate intake of carbohydrates due to the fact that carbohydrate availability spares proteins.
True/False: High-protein diets can lead to dehydration and increased body fat in athletes.
True/False: Foods high in protein take longer to digest and absorb than those high in carbohydrates.
Discuss the drawback of “cookie-cutter” nutrition plans for athletes. In your answer, include at least three factors that should be considered when developing a nutrition plan for an athlete.
Ans: The main drawback of “cookie-cutter” nutrition plans is the lack of individualization. Nutrition plans for athletes should consider the individual’s health history, the bioenergetics of the athlete’s sport, total weekly training and competition time, living arrangements, access to food, and travel schedules.
Provide two examples of appropriate postexercise snacks, and provide an explanation of why they are appropriate for athletes.
1. Fresh fruit and yogurt—a lot of carbohydrates and potassium, source of protein, easy to prepare2. Peanut butter sandwich—combination of carbohydrates and protein, easy to prepare, does not require refrigeration
Does fat affect vitamin and mineral absorption? Include specific vitamins and minerals that may be affected.
Ans: Fat-soluble vitamins—A, D, E, and K—require fat for optimal absorption in the intestines. Therefore, it is important to include small to moderate amounts of fats with meals and snacks so that these nutrients can be absorbed and utilized within the body.
Provide an example of two plant foods that are complementary proteins when they are combined.
Ans: Black beans and rice; tofu and pita bread; peanuts and lentils
List two reasons why protein supplements may be helpful to athletes and three reasons why athletes may not need protein supplements.
Ans: Helpful: athletes who cannot meet energy needs; they are convenient ways to get good- quality protein in; some vegetarian athletes may have higher protein needs and supplements could help. May not need: Most athletes can get adequate protein in regular diet; protein foods are abundant in the Western food supply; protein supplements are costly; overconsumption of protein supplements may lead to less consumption of carbohydrates.
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