the contribution one individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of other individuals.
A process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than are individuals with other characteristics.
Darwins theory of natural selection
he presented two main concepts-life evolves- change occurs as a result of "descent with modification", with natural selection as the mechanism
breeding for a desired trait, animal breeders, are often able to change the characteristics of domestic animals.
what are the oldest known fossils
the ordered sequence of fossils as they appear in rock layers, reveals the appearance of organisms in a historical sequence, fits the molecular and cellular evidence that prokaryotes are the ancestors of all life
what are the two most important points that came from Darwins observations
all species tend to produce excessive numbers of offspring organisms vary, and much of this variation is heritable
The similarity in structures due to common ancestry
what are some of the evidences for evolution
the fossil record, bio geography comparative anatomy comparative embryology molecular biology
examples of natural selection
the evolution of finches on the Galapagos islands pesticide-resistant insects antibotic-resistant bacteria drug-resistant strains of HIV
the heredity background of an organism is documented in its DNA, the proteins encoded by the dna
evolutionary tree diagram
the first forms of life on earth form the common trunk at each fork is the last common ancestor to all the branches extending from that fork
the fusion of genetics with evolutionary biology
the genetic composition of a population changes over time
how does evolution relate to populations?
a population is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time changing over generations. evolutionary adaptation
comparatively minor evolutionary change involving the accumulation of variations in populations usually below the species level.
it results in relativity large and complex changes
what are 3 causes of evolutionary change?
genetic Drift gene flow natural selection
what are some sources of genetic variation>
mutations changes in the DNA of an organisms sexual recombination the shuffling of alleles during meiosis
it can be used to calculate the frequencies of genotypes in a gene pool from the frequencies of alleles
a distinction in appearance between males and females
a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time changing over generations
A Change in the gene pool of a small pop. due to chance
likley when a few individuals colonize an isolated habiatiat and represent genetic drift in a new colony
how do insects and bacteria become resistant
insecticide application chromosome with gene conferring resistance to pesticide survivors, reproduction
INDIVIDUALS DO NOT EVOLVE
are natural selection and evolution the same?
no, Natural Selection is about inherited characteristics and evolution is the genetic composition of a population changes over time.
the focal point of macroevolution
due to geographic isolation
without geographic isolation
they have more than two chromosomes.
involves superficially similar structures in unrelated organisms based on natural selection
a class of individuals having common attributes and designated by a common name
prevent mating or fertilization between species Ex: Temporal isolation- Nocturnal , Habitat Isolation, Behavioral Isolation, Mechanical isolation- Isn't able to work. Gametic Isolation- only males or females
operate if interspecies mating occurs and hybrid zygotes form. Ex: Reduced hybrid viability, Reduced Hybrid Fertility, Hybrid Breakdown
punctuated equilibrium model of evolution
Long periods of little change, equilibrium, punctuated by abrupt episodes of speciation
biological species concept
a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
a structure that evolves in one context, but becomes adapted for another function
evo-devo-evolutionary developmental biology
The study of the evolution of developmental processes in multicellular organisms
the retention into adulthood of features that were solely juvenile in ancestral species
how does "evo-devo" tie in with homeotic genes?
a subtle change in a species' development program can have profound effects, changing the rate, timing spatial pattern of development.
master control genes that regulate- when structures develop, how structures develop, and where structures develop
the sequence in which fossils appear in rock strata, an archive of macroevolution
the most common method for dating fossils, Its based on the decay of radioactive isotopes, helped establish the geologic time scale.
a heavy radioactive isotope used for dating fossils.
a radioactive isotope used for dating fossils.
where continents drift about the earth's surface on plates of crust floating on a flexible layer called the mantle.
how did the Himalayas form?
by Continental Drift
was a supercontinent 250 million years ago
Over the last 600 million years how many mass extinctions events have occurred?
The Permian Mass Extinction
Occurred at about the time the merging continents formed Pangaea, Claimed about 96% of marine Species
The Cretaceous Extinction
occurred at the end of the Cretaceoud period about 65 milliong years ago. Dinosaurs except birds, rise of mammals
Evolutionary diversification of a generalized ancestral form with production of a number of adaptively specialized forms
the evoulationary history of a kind of organism
involves superficially similar structures in unrelated organisms, Its based on natural selection
Three domain System
Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain
Seven Girls Fought over Captain Planets Kraft DInner
What classification system do we use today? What is it based on? How many of those "Groups" are eukaryotes
Three Domain System, based on molecular studies and cladistics Two domains of Prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea) oNe domain of Prokaryotes ( Eukarya)
Which element was probably not present in the early, primitive earth?
what energy sources were present in early earth?
Intense volcanic activity lightning UV radiation
what were the first organisms?
all life today arises by the reproduction of preexisting life
life regularly arises from nonliving matter
what is the 4 stage hypothesis for the origin of life?
the 1st organsims were products of chemical evoultion in four stages Stage 1: Abiotic Synthesis of Organic Monomers Stage 2: Abiotic Synthesis of Polymers Stage 3: Formation of Pre-cells Stage 4:: Origin of Self-Replicating Molecules
What were the first organisms composed of?
What Similarities do protobionts and modern day cells share?
bacteria that wait for the immune system to go down and then they ATTACK!
three morphologies of bacteria
Cooci-round Bacilli-oval Spirochete-spiral
what is the major difference between bacterial and archaea cell walls?
by comparing diverse prokaryotes at the molecular level biologists have identified two major branches of prokaryotic evolution: Bacteria, - Archea- more closely related to eukaryotes
purple Thick peptidoglycan cell wall
pink thinner peptidoglycan
help with adhesion
help with movement
movement whip like motion
how can prokaryotes withstand harsh conditions?
they form an endospore
a thick cell wall that helps protect prokaryotes
what type of bacteria carry out photosynthesis?
circular, independently replicating DNA--> used in biotechnology
colony, sticky, slimy, soap scum, plaque
what do we get from bacteria?
not cell secretions but instead chemical components of the outer membrane of certain bacteria
poisonous proteins secreted by bacterial cells
what causes Lyme disease?
bacteria carried by ticks
Anthrax Botulism Plague
the use of organisms to remove pollutants from water air and soil
a close assocaition between organisms of 2 or more species
early eukaryotic cells lacking mitochondria and chloroplasts phagocytosed early aerobic prokaryotes and photosynthetic prokaryotes and rather than digesting them, formed a symbiotic relationship with them, offering them nutrients and shelter (therefore the 'endo-' part) and getting very efficient energy generating systems in return.
how do amoeba move
pseudopodia (false Foot)
a "catch-all" group composed of organisms that regardless of how dissimilar and they don't fit into any other category.
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