Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
What is a Puritan?
- Strict religious sect came to new world to avoid persecution in England
-Conservative religious doctrine
-Work-oriented, church-oriented, community-oriented
-Went against the Catholic Church because they wanted more personal relationship with God
Calvin- “God intended to provide not only for our necessity but likewise for our pleasure and delight.”
Forefather of Puritanism
For Calvin, God is supreme.
He didn’t like women
”Women are the unclean vessel, they are the tempters of men.”
-Men should stay away from marriage. But if you just can’t restrain yourself, it is better to get married. It is better to be married then to run around with many women.
With the Puritans, there is a tremendous paradigm shift in Western thought…
-Formerly, the poor were viewed as those who were blessed by God- Catholicism
-Now there is a shift that those who are rich are blessed by God- Puritanism
If you work hard, you will get rich. If you get rich, you have God’s favor.
Irresistible Grace- If God calls you, you cannot resist
*Talks about religion being an emotional experience
* Benjamin Franklin went to hear Whitfield preach-very impressed
“Sinners in the hands of an angry God”
*If you really want to be saved, raise your hand, and God will see and look favorably on you
*Shift of emphasis from God to man- fits into the idea of capitalism and the self-made man
1859- On the Origin of Species
*In this work, he argued for the evolutionary process. That is, existing species, including human beings, have evolved from a long process of natural selection from simple forms of life to the most complex. The process represented a struggle for existence resulting in survival of the fittest. The strong survive, the weak die out.
Englishman, was to be the bridge between Darwinism and Social Darwinism (the bridge between science and social science).
He took a biological theory and applied it to society. Human society and institutions, like organisms, passed through the process of natural selection, thus the concept of survival of the fittest applies to human society and institutions as well.
*Brought up the point that evolution=progress
No human intervention
Harvard professor- tried to reconnect the disconnect between God and human beings that evolution fostered by placing god in the process of coevolution (after theories of Darwin and Spencer gained popularity)
William Graham Sumner
-Competition promotes progress
-A person’s chief mission in life should be to accumulate capital
*Social classes owe each other—nothing
The government should not interfere in this process (lassiez faire)
Government exists for one purpose: that is to guarantee the liberty of individuals
Lester Frank Ward
-Came from a background of poverty, was self-educated
-Accepted evolution, followed Spencer to a degree
*BUT Ward was opposed to the rigid determinism implied in Spencer and in Sumner—that is, the whole idea of evolution, just leave it alone
*Human beings make progress by protecting the weak.
COOPERATION PROMOTES PROGRESS (reformed Darwinism)
Increased government action
The Significance of the Frontier in American History- Turners pictures the frontier as free, open territory settled with little violence.
In the 20th century, the frontier has become a commodity and a political tool.
-Commercialization of the frontier
-She complains the image of the frontier almost invariably take the side of the white settlers.
- Reveals the many uses of the frontier mentality in American life.
-Concept of the frontier “works as a cultural glue”—works to hold us together
-First lasted from 1840-1870.
* Montana south to Arizona
* Mining frontier
* This frontier set the prototype for other frontiers.
* Individualistic stage to the capitalist stage
* You have to have money to invest in machinery for mining
-Second lasted from 1865-1885
* Cattleman stage
* Development of open range cattle industry
*Individualist stage to the capitalist stage
*Round up cattle—then must invest in fences, cattle breeding, food
-Third frontier lasted from
* Farmers’ frontier
* Individualist stage to the capitalist stage
* People come in and start their farms, but then they must eventually invest capital in plows, machinery, etc.
*When civilization begins—establishment of churches, schools, families, etc.
*American people heard “we no longer have a frontier.”
-Frederick Jackson Turner, based on what the census bureau said, delivered the address The Significance of the Frontier in American History (1893)
*The frontier did more to mold the American character than did our European heritage
coined by John L O’Sullivan (1839)- God given right for Americans to expand across the continent- to bring the blessings of democracy and Christianity
-New manifest destiny: When we start expanding over seas
-Followed Frederick Jackson Turner
-Civilization is built on a three-legged stool: Land, water, and timber
-After a hundred degrees west, water and timber will run out, but land will not
-Geography is determinant of history
-As geography changes, you get cultural differences
He lived on farms throughout his life.
Classical education that he received as a boy
* From Horace, he got the idea of a romanticized farm life.
Relationship between virtue and agriculture—Farmers are virtuous. Virtue grows out of a connection with the soil.
Personal correspondence he kept up with John Taylor of Caroline (radical agrarian philosopher)
Sought to parallel Cincinnatus
Simple tiller of the soil
Jefferson saw in the farmer a sense of purity and innocence that distinguished him from other citizens.
By working in the soil, farmers absorbed virtue from the earth.
“Jefferson was above all a moralist.”
Jefferson sees the farmer as the simple tiller of the soil
Southern novelist (woman)
“The South is not so much Christ’s centered and Christ haunted.”
-Southerners feel so much more guilt than they do sin
William Jennings Bryan
-Founder of the Populist movement- 1896
-Had a real impact on both domestic and foreign policy
Closing of the frontier- 1890’s “No longer a continuous frontier line”
-Led to discontent movements and expansion overseas
Bryan sees the farmer as a businessman- Marriage of the success myth and the agrarian myth
Hamilton believed in a strong central government to protect the interest of business and wealth. Jefferson believed in a weak central government to protect the interest of the people
-American fear of anything different and foreign.
“We define who we are by defining who we are not.”
The Indian as “Ruthless Savage”
-Indians as murderers
-Torture that they execute on their prisoners justifies extermination
Stockholm Syndrome- Fear that one would be captured by the Indians and eventually become one of them
King George III
July 2-4, 1776
Declaration of Independence was propaganda to tell the rest of the world why were revolting.
Third foreign devil
Anti-Catholic feelings which flared up in the 1928 and 1960 presidential campaigns were not isolated- represented culmination of feelings that exited since early days of colonization
- Rooted in the old world
Election of 1960- Election of JFK- laid the Roman Catholics as a foreign devil to rest
Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony
Beacon to the world myth
Aboard the Arabella
“Roman Catholics should be hacked out like bramble, do not deal gently with them for they will prick you.”
Two factors contributed to decline of Anti Catholicism:
British victory in the French and Indian War—signaled the end of French control in America—“French Menace”- Roman Catholics coming down from Canada trying to take over the British North American colonies (1754-1763)
Possibility of enlightenment
*Congress should make no law establishing religion
Shut your gates, place your guard, first battle is here
-Samuel F. B. Morse
-Prominent Americans joining into the Anti Catholic crusade
Charges of sexual immorality between nuns and priests
-Taught she must listen to the priest, even if it meant going against sexual morality
-Infants were baptized and then strangled
Election of 1928 and Election of 1960:
1928: Hoover and Al Smith
1960: Kennedy and Nixon
Kennedy and Smith- Roman Catholics
Catholic was running against Protestant for office in upstate NY.
Appears in church bulletins in 1928 and 1960
Roman Catholics must take an oath
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!