Martin & Fabes textbook: · The main ideas of the different theories of child development discussed in Ch 2, and the terms and people associated with each theory Child Development Theories Scientific theories Evaluating theories of development Biology-based theories of child Development Evolutionary Theories : explations of development that focus on how behaviors promote the survival of individual and the species Ethological Theory : explanation of development that focuse son the causes and adaptive value of behavior, considering both the evolutionary history of the species and the social context. Neurodevelopmental Approaches : Explantions of development that focus on the relationship of the brian development to behavior and thinking Psychoanalytic Theories of Child Development : Explanations of development that focus on the unconscious drives and forces that develop within the mind Freud ’ s Psychosexual Theory : state theory of development based on how the libido is transformed into different structures and modes of expression Erikson ’ s Psychosocial Theory : lifespan theory, the struggles that occur at the various stages of development between two conflicting personality characteristics Learning-Based Theories of Child Development Classical Conditioning : Pavlov ’ s theory of how responses to neutral stimuli become conditioned Operant Conditioning : learning based on the principle that the consequences of a behavior affect the likeliehood that the behavior will be repeated. Social Learning Theory : Namdira ’ s theory that individuals are greatly influences by observing and imitating other people Cognition-Based Theories of Child Development Piaget ’ s Cognitive Developmental Theory : children ’ s thinking is very different from that of adolescents and adults (sensorimotor state; preoperational state; concere operational state; formal operational stage). Pg 40. Vygotsky ’ s Theory of Cognitive Development : pg 41; children use psychological tools such as language, numbering systems and maps to develop higher levels of thinking; language particularly important because it allows kids to devel op new ideas and to regulate their behavior; he emphazied of social interaction on development; he proposed a theory about the important role that social interactions and caregivers have in facilitating learning in children; zone of proximal development on pg. 42; Information Processing Theory : based on the idea that people have limited capacities for learning, but can flexibly apply strategies to find ways around those limitations (3 parts: sensory register, short-term memory, long-term memory) chart on pg 42. Contextual Theories of Child Development : emphasize the interaction between the biological and environmental forces that influence behavior and development in particular contexts. Bornfenbrenner ’ s Ecological Theory : used a ceoncept from earth science---ecology---to outline the interplay between the children and his or her immediate social and physical environment, a lar ge system; (from the middle out known as the ecological model: microsystem, mesosystems, exosystems, macrosystems). Dynamic Systems Theory : a theory base on the idea that complex systems form form basic and simple conditions without adhering to a master plan for development. How is Child Development Studied? Scientific Reasonign and the Scientific Method pg 46 Topics in Developmental Science pg 46 bottom Research Strategies pg 47 bottom Measuring Change over Time pg 52 middle Measruing Children ’ s Behavior pg 54 · Scientific method, research designs, correlations pg 49 (case studies, clinical interviews, survey studies, naturalistic studies, correlational studies, experimental studies). · Discipline methods & influences on parent ’ s use of discipline pg 315 discipline: attemps by parents to alter children ’ s behaviors or attitudes; refers to ANY at tempt; rarely before age of 2; compliance: obedience brought about by external peressures (such as knowelesge that one will be rewarded or punished for actions); internalization: obedience based on internal control s and standards that kids have incorporated into their own expectations of themselves; power assertion: disciplinary techniques in which parents use physical forces or threats of physical force to control children ’ s behavior; Parent ’ s use of discipline depends on a variety of factors such as the characteristics of the child & the situation … … … … nature of misbehavior, cultural, ethinc and social values … . · Diana Baumrind ’ s parenting styles pg 318. 1) Authoritative Parenting : parents try to shape, control and judge the behaviors and attitudes of their kids according to rigid standards of conduct -lively and happy disposition -self-confident about ability to master tasks. -well developed emotion regulation -developed social skills -less rigid about gender-typed traits (exp: sensitivity in boys and independence in girls) 2) Authoritarian Parenting : parents encourage verbal give and take and share with their children the reasons behind discplinae and household rules -anxious, withdrawn, and unhappy disposition -poor reactions to frustration (girls are particularly likely to give up and boys become especially hostile) -do well in school (studies may show authoritative parenting is comparable) -not likely to engage in antisocial activities (exp: drug and alcohol abuse, vandalism, gangs) 3) Permissive Parenting : parents make few demands of their kids---they are accepting and tolerant of their kids impulses and desires. - poor emotion regulati on (under regulated) ----rebellious and defiant when desires are challenged. -low persistence to challenging tasks -antisocial behaviors Brooks textbook: · Nature vs. nurture debate The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature", i.e. , or ) versus personal experiences ("nurture", i.e. or ) in or individual differences in and traits o Judith Rich Harris ’ s beliefs about nature vs. nurture In her -nominated book , author argues that "nurture," as traditionally defined in terms of family upbringing does not effectively explain the variance for most traits (such as adult IQ and the Big Five personality traits) in the general population of the United States. On the contrary , Harris suggests that either peer groups or random environmental factors (i.e., those that are independent of family upbringing) are more important than family environmental effects. · Bronfenbrenner & Morris ’ s beliefs about parenting Pg 7 — one or more other person with whom the kid develops a strong, mutual strong attachment to and who are commited to the kids development … . Irrational attachment and love for the kid … ..this is a child basic psychological need. · Lykken ’ s reasons for proposing a parenting license Parents should be licensed; have a profound influence on their children ’ s lives; prospective parents need to get licsen, just as adults must to driv e car; it would require a) proof of legal age, b) proof of marriage, c) pr oof of employment or economic independence, d) no history of violent criminal behavior; parenting without licsense is illegal; no system will eliminate all problems, but parenthood is a privelage and responsibility — based upon behavior … · Warner ’ s ideas about the unrealistic expectations of parents in today ’ s society pg 14 moms must be physically available to children at all times, to meet all their needs for physical care, love and stimulati on, best physical social and educational programs, excel in the role so child can suuceed, · Survey findings about how becoming parents changes people · How disadvantaged living situations affect children · How Dr. Spock influenced parenting experts that came later : pg 69-- · Social theories · Systems theory pg. 58 broad term that applies to theories in many sciences, such as biology, psychology and sociology; animal, person, family and organization consists of many parts, all of which influence each other in important ways, and no p art is more important than the other. Behavior: genetic, neurophysiologic , psychological, social and sociologica; there ’ s no fixed, predetermined sequence of gene, neural pathways, behavior, effect on the environment and the environment ’ s response. · Diana Baumrind ’ s types of parents (a.k.a. parenting styles) pg 385: authoritative; democratic; nonauthoritatran-directive parents; authoritarian-directive; unengaged parents; · Patterson ’ s beliefs about what parents must do to help children develop control and compliance · Principles of Mindful Parenting · Bronfenbrenner ’ s ideas about the growing chaos in children ’ s lives · Erikson ’ s beliefs about aging parents, death, and the impact on the children · Mily relationships with their own parents, Definition of culture A set of values, beliefs, ways of thinking, rituals, and institutions of a group or population. · The independent and interdependent models of parenting · Characteristics of different ethnic and cultural groups and their parenting (African Americans, Asian Americans, Middle Eastern Americans) starts on pg 88. · How children learn about culture Pg. 82 Through socialization, the term for the process whereby individuals learn the skills necessary for group life; parents and other authorities taught children and new comes their beliefs. · Lareau ’ s concept of accomplishment of natural growth Pg. 1 1 3 · How poverty impacts children Pg. 115 because parents become more irritable, depressed and easily frustrated, this has a direct impact on their parentsing---stimualte chil d less, use less effective parenting practice, no communitation as openly or share power as much as they do in less stressful times; affects kid schoolwork and behavior; parenting skill simprove when conditions improve- children ’ s improve. · Similarities among ethnic groups in terms of supporting teens and avoiding harsh punishment · Which are the second and third largest ethnic groups in the U.S. Pg. 91 2) Latina/os; 3) African American · How age is (or is not) related to parenting ability Pg. 218 1) the teen ’ s social backgrounds, 2) early family relationships with their own parents, 3) their own personality characteristics, 4) their relationships with peers; also lower age means more pregnancy complications (premature an d low birth weight) and teenagers are less effective in parenting (unstable home environement, poversty, lower education attainment; behavior and school problems, less social support from relatives and friends. · Heinicke ’ s qualities of an optimal parenting environment 1) parents ’ feelings of self-esteem, 2) their capacity for positive, mutually satisfying relationships with others, especially with partner, 3) their capacity for flexible problem solving. · Characteristics of mothers who gave birth to unwanted children Pg. 215 mothers are less likely to seek prenatal care in the 1 st 3 months and more likely to contie habits such as smoking and drinking alchol; they are more likely to have babies who are prema ture, of low birth wiehgt, or small for their gestastional age and are also less likely to breastfeed their babies; mothers are less happy, more prone to depression and to greater difficulties rearing not only the wanted child but their siblings; less lik ely to spend time with them and more likely to spank them, mother-child relationships present, mothers are less affectionate and less supportive. More likely to be single, divorced. · Challenge that is unique to gay and lesbian couples considering parenting PG 214 — and 485-487 · Parent-child attachment with adopted children; is it different from the parent-child attachment of biological parents and their children? PG 231-234 znc 239-240 · Factors related to adjustment to parenthood 234, 235 · When is increasing contact with single fathers helpful to children 212-213, 462-465 · Single women who view a child as social capital and the impact of that belief on their decision to have a child OTHER: Extinction : reducing unwanted behavior by withholding all positive consequences Shaping : the process of rewarding behaviors that approximate the desired behavior Vicarious reinforcement: learning by watching the consequences of other people ’ s behaviors punishment: application of unpleasant consequences to decrease the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated Correlation studies: compare participant (children usually) on 2 variables to determine whether the variable relate to each other. (pg 50).