The belief that no culture or set of cultural ethics is superior to another.
The belief that a particular set of ethics has no flexibility and no room for improvement.
Focuses on good character traits of individuals. Aristotle defined virtues as the golden mean.
Focuses on a set of rules for actions or moral duties and obligations.
Immanuel Kant; categorical imperitave. Contractualism. John Rawls, veil of ignorance.
Focuses on the consequences of actions.
Utilitarianism; Ethical egoism; Altruism.
Assuming that ethical standards in general depend entirely on the opinions of people, which according to emotivism, are expressions of feelings - approval/disapproval - about an action and have little to do with the truth of the matter.
6-step process: 1. Define the situation, 2. State the different values, 3. Consider traditional ethics principles and approaches, 4. Identify all the stakeholders, 5. Select a course of action, 6. Evaluate the impact of your decision.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
An organizational philosophy that emphasizes an organization's obligation to be a good corporate citizen through programs that improve society.
A process through which an organization evaluates its own ethical conduct and makes recommendations to improve it.
How to systematically search out available research and collect new information from people and literature.
How to systematically collect non-numerical information/data to discover underlying meanings and patterns ("how" and "why").
How to systematically collect numerical data to describe and explain a phenomenon ("how many," "how much," etc.).
Survey of every member of a sampling frame.
Non probability sampling
Does not allow the researcher to calculate the probability that each element/subject of a population is selected in a sample; does not follow the laws of probability; sample results not generalizable to the population; restricted to saying that "based on what or whom we sampled, their responses were this."
(Non probability sampling) available; "captive audience."
(Non probability sampling) predetermined quotas
(Non probability sampling) Selection of subjects who possess certain characteristics; focus groups, ad research.
(Non probability sampling) Subject's agreement to participate; instant polling.
(Non probability sampling) An initial small sample of subjects inviting others to participate.
Gives each element/subject of a population a known, non-zero chance of being selected in a sample because of the laws of probability; makes it possible to make valid statistical inferences of the population's characteristics based on the results obtained from the sample because we can calculate sampling error.
Simple random sampling (SRS)
(Probability sampling) The only sampling method that gives each element/subject of a population a known, nonzero chance in being selected in a sample because of the laws of probability; makes it possible to make valid statistical inferences of the population's characteristics based on the results obtained from the sample because we can calculate sampling error.
A form of problem-opportunity research in which an organization identifies and and analyzes emerging trends and issues for the purpose of preparing a timely and appropriate response.
The process by which an organization deals with a major event that threatens to harm the organization, its stakeholders or the general public.
3 characteristics of a problem statement
1. written in the present tense, describing the current situation, 2. describing the situation in specific, measurable terms, 3. does not imply a solution or a place of blame.
A strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses/limitations, Opportunities and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture.
Ad Hoc plan
A plan created for a single, short-term purpose; from the Latin phrase meaning "for this purpose only."
A plan that remains in effect over an extended period of time; its tactics routinely re-enacted to sustain fulfillment of the plan's goal(s) and objectives.
A plan created for use when a certain set of circumstances arises.
Goal, Objective, Strategy, Tactic
to-verb; a summative, long-range statement that spells out the overall outcome of a program.
to-verb; a specific, short-term knowledge, opinion and behavioral outcome to be achieved for each well-defined public. 1, outcome verb, not process verb, 2, type of effect, 3, change expressed in measurable terms, 4, the date of accomplishment.
verb; an overall plan to reach an objective; the overall concept, approach or general plan for the program.
verb; a concrete, operational-level action (e.g., actual events, media, methods).
Investigates whether the intended target publics are actually being reached by the messages; necessary to determine the discrepancy between planned and actual implementation.
checks to see if the program is having its intended effects shortly after the campaign starts; necessary to modify the program if unanticipated or disappointing results occur.
Assesses the program's results when the campaign is finished; necessary to suggest changes for the future.
Communication channels, such as newspaper stories, in which a PR practitioner cannot control the message, its timing or its frequency.
Communications channels, such as newsletters, in which the sender of the message controls the message as well as its timing and frequency.
An Aristotelian term denoting persuasive appeal based on a speaker's character and reputation.