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Baroque (1600 - 1750)
Classical (1750 – 1820)
Romantic (1820 – 1900)
Modern (1900 – onwards)
Name 3 elements of music that changed from the Baroque onwards?
Homophony as main texture.
Name the three general characteristics of the Baroque style?
Love of Drama
Name the three dramatic forms developed in music during the Baroque?
Opera, oratorio, and cantata
Where was the major cultural center throughout the 16th and into the 17th century?
Venice’s musical activity centered around the Basilica of Saint Mark.
What was the most sought after position in Venice?
Describe the technique known as Polychoral or Antiphonal.
Music written for two choruses and performed by two semi-independent choirs. One responding to the other.
How were composers employed during the Baroque?
Under a patronage system in which they composed music exclusively for the employers.
What was an important feature in Baroque music?
What is Recitative style and what is its’ main objective?
An expressive line of melody repeated with the objective of expressing the text.
Abrupt changes in dynamics.
What is the Doctrine of Affections?
The practice of projecting states of feeling in music.
Who composed “Ev’ry Valley”?
Who composed “Hallelujah Chorus”?
Who composed “Zion hears the Watchmen”?
What is Equal Temperament?
Has to do with the tuning practice of making all of the intervals slightly off so that the distance between all half steps is equal.
What is Figured Bass?
A shorthand system to notate chords.
What is realization?
What does Bass Continuo mean?
The bass part provides a foundation to the music and sounds nearly all the time. (Continuous Bass)
What is does Continuo mean?
Continuous Bass was shortened for convenience to Continuo.
Who composed Messiah?
What dramatic genre is the Messiah considered?
Name 3 types of music found in dramatic genres and give examples from our listening assignments.
Chorus (Hallelujah Chorus); Aria (Ev’ry Valley Shall Be Exalted);
Recitative (The Voice of Him That Crieth in the Wilderness)
Describe the Oratorio.
A lengthy musical work for voices and orchestra. Oratorios consist of many arias, recitatives and choruses, plus a few sections for the accompanying orchestra. Not used in worship and uses Homophony.
Describe the Cantata.
The Cantata is a short Oratorio (usually 5 – 8 sections), performed in worship services of the Protestant church and incorporates a chorale melody instead of a chant.
Describe the Passion.
The Passion is another type of vocal music from the Baroque period, it is like an Oratorio except that its subject is the suffering of Christ on the cross.
Handel composed a lot of music but today he is mostly known for…?
Oratorios do not usually include …?
Scenery and costumes.
What is an overture?
An instrumental work played before an oratorio or an opera.
What is a virtuoso?
Someone skilled at performing.
A feature of “Dido’s Lament” is…?
its many virtuoso passages.
Describe the Aria.
The aria was developed during the Baroque and is a type of music for one singer with accompaniment.
What is the chorale?
The Chorale is a product of early Protestant belief which encouraged the congregation to sing. Basically a German Lutheran hymn. Metrical rhythm and sung in German or the vernacular language. Homophonic and accompanied by an organ or choir.
How does the Aria differ from the Recitative?
Aria is longer | Orchestra has more important role in an Aria | Long phrases/melodic decoration | Strict rhythm | Expressive function
What are the origins of Opera?
Opera was the result of the desire to make music more expressive; it was founded as an attempt to re-create the dramas of ancient Greece.
What is the Camerata?
The Camerata is a group of intellectuals from Florence, Italy around 1575 that gathered to discuss music, arts, science, literature, etc. Camerata means circle.
What is opera?
Drama sung to orchestral accompaniment.
What are the 4 elements of opera?
Singers, Orchestra, Libretto, Staging
What is Libretto and who writes it?
The Libretto is the text or script of an opera, Libretto means “little book” and is usually not written by the composer.
What is an ensemble?
Ensembles consist of several characters singing different words and music expressing their particular feeling, creating a kind of musical and emotional counterpoint.
Name some typical singer roles for an opera and their vocal range.
Hero – Tenor (sometimes Baritone) | Heroine – Soprano | Older Characters, Villains, servant of which the females would be Mezzosoprano and the males would be Bass.
How does Opera differ from Oratorio?
Opera – Secular subject matter with acting, dancing, scenery and costumes whereas oratorio uses religious subject matter and there is no acting, dancing, scenery or costumes.
Who are Aeneas and Dido?
Aeneas was the founder of Rome and Dido is the widowed queen of the island of Carthage
Where do the two character’s from question 9 come from?
Who is Henry Purcell?
English composer of stage works, organist at Westminster Abbey and the composer of Dido and Aeneas.
What does the term ostinato mean?
Ostinato comes from the Italian word for stubborn and is a feature of the aria “Dido’s Lament” in which the “ground bass” or bass line repeats.
Describe the Castrati?
The Castrati were boys who were castrated before puberty; they had the lung power of a man with the vocal range of a woman.
Who were the highest paid virtuosos?
Describe Baroque instrumental music.
Baroque instrumental music became complex and important and works were written for the instruments themselves. Melody: ornamentation | Harmony: Major and Minor
Name the two important keyboard instruments of the Baroque.
The organ and the harpsichord.
Of the organ and harpsichord which reached its height of development during the Baroque and which one faded into insignificance after the Baroque.
The organ reached the height of its development and the harpsichord faded.
What are the four Baroque Instrumental Genres?
Suite; Sonata; Fugue and Concerto.
Describe the Harpsichord.
Keys are connected to a plectrum that plucks the strings because of this it has no dynamics.
What is a Suite?
A set of musical works where each movement is based on a dance.
What is a Sonata?
A Sonata is an instrumental work for one or a few instruments with a continuo.
What is concerted style?
A favorite musical effect during the Baroque was the contrast between groups of instruments.
Describe the Pipe Organ.
Air is blown through the pipes by bellows at the back, has manuals and has a pedal board played with the feet.
Describe the Fugue.
A Fugue is a contrapuntal/polyphonic instrumental work that is built around a main theme.
A Toccata is a free-sounding virtuoso work, free rhythm with room for improvisation.
Describe the Baroque Concerto.
The Baroque Concerto is usually a work for a solo instrument and orchestra.
Who composed “The Four Seasons”
How many concerti did “The Four Seasons” have and how many movements did each concerto have?
“The Four Seasons” was a set of 4 concerti, each with 3 movements.
Define Program music.
Program music is music based on extra-musical ideas (story, image, poem, etc...)
Define Ritornello form.
Ritornello form is a form where themes in the beginning return later in the movement.
Vivaldi’s “Spring” Concerto is an example of …?
A Baroque suite is a group of…?
Stylized dance works
A stylized dance is one that …?
Has been created to be listened to.
Who composed Toccata and Fugue in D minor?
The section containing the main theme in a concerto grosso is called…?
A concerto grosso contrasts …?
A small group of players with the rest of the orchestra.
What years was the Classical period?
The Classical period was also known as…?
The Age of Enlightenment: a European intellectual movement also the Age of Reason
During the classical period the center of music moved from Italy to …?
What does phrase ‘Absolute Music’ mean?
Music with no extra musical associations, music for its own sake; it is the opposite of program music
The word “classical” refers to something that is…?
Of the highest quality (This answer is from the Cengage website)
The basic philosophical beliefs of the Classical Period?
What is true is universal and eternal
The Rococo style was and .
light and elegant
The titles of Classical music usually refer to
What was the most important form developed during the Classical period?
What are the three sections of the sonata form?
Exposition, Development, Recapitulation
How many movements does a symphony usually consist of?
During the Classical Period the first movement is usually in what form?
Describe the movements of the Symphony Format.
The first movement is in Sonata form | The second movement is slow tempo | The third movement is a stylized minuet | The fourth movement is lively; often Rondo form.
What is the Tempo of the first movement in symphony No. 40 in G-minor?
Allegro Molto (fast)
The exposition in sonata form usually contains ______ themes
Usually contains 2 themes
What was the last name of the man who catalogued Mozart’s music?
What is the difference between the recapitulation and the exposition?
The key does not change between the first and second themes during recapitulation.
Who composed symphony No. 40 in G-minor?
The concerto grosso of the Baroque period fell out of fashion and was replaced in the Classical period by _________?
The solo concerto.
Which two instruments are the most frequently featured in concertos?
The violin and the piano.
How many movements does the Concerto Format have?
Describe the movements of the Concerto Format.
1st movement: Sonata Form | 2nd movement: Slow tempo, lyrical | 3rd movement: Rondo form, fast tempo
Describe the Sonata Form (1st movement) in the concerto.
Exposition 1: Orchestra plays 1st and 2nd themes.
Exposition 2: Soloist plays 1st and 2nd themes.
Cadenza: Soloist plays without the orchestra in an improvisatory virtuoso style, based on themes.
Rondo form is similar to ritornello but rondo’s A theme is always __________.
in the same key
What movement does Rondo form appear in?
Rondo form appears in the last movement
What is Opera Seria?
Opera that has a serious nature, closer to the original dramatic intent.
What is Opera Buffa?
Light style opera that was often comical.
List 6 characteristics of Opera Buffa.
More natural characters | About everyday life | Local dialect | Some spoken dialogue | Used lower voices (not castrati) | Developed in Naples then spread to Rome and north
Who composed Don Giovanni?
Name some of the characters from Don Giovanni and their vocal range.
Don Giovanni: Baritone | Leporello (servant): Bass | Commendatore (father of girl whom Don Giovanni raped): Bass | Demon Voices
Who commissioned the opera Don Giovanni?
An opera company in Prague
Who wrote the Libretto for Don Giovanni?
The Italian Lorenzo da Ponte
Which type of opera is Don Giovanni?
Opera Seria for the most part.
Name three characteristics of chamber music.
Music for a small group | Each part is performed by one performer | all parts are equally important.
Who composed the string quartet in C-Minor?
What are the instruments of a string quartet?
2 violins, viola, and a cello
usually 4 movements same format as a symphony
Describe the 3rd movement in the string quartet format?
A minuet, triple meter, dance, moderate tempo
Describe the minuet form.
Minuet Form: Minuet-Trio-Minuet (ABA)
What makes up a piano quartet?
A piano and 3 string instruments
Describe the theme in a theme and variations.
The theme is played then varied several times
What does the word ensemble mean?
It means a sense of oneness
The word Sonata has two meanings, what are the two meanings?
Sonata is a form for a movement of work and sonata is a genre of music
The Sonata during the Classical period was …?
A multi-movement work for a piano alone or one instrument and a piano; in the latter case the two instruments are equally important.
What is the pattern of movements for the piano sonata?
Same pattern of movements as that of a symphony, concerto, or chamber music (3 or 4 movements)
Who composed the Piano Sonata No. 11?
Who composed Waldstein?
Name the two types of piano?
The Grand Piano and the upright piano.
Which type of piano became the instrument of choice for piano concertos and recitals?
The Grand Piano
List three changes to the piano during the Classical Period.
The Frame became stronger; the stronger frame contributed to better dynamics; and the range of pitches was extended.
Describe the three movements of Piano Sonata No. 11?
1st movement is theme and variation | 2nd movement is minuet and trio | 3rd movement is rondo form.
What is a triplet?
Three equal notes in one beat
It repeats the same note 13 times in a row
Where did Beethoven spend much of his adult life?
Beethoven spent most of his adult life in Vienna
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