Piaget believed that the best way for children to learn is through:
experimenting with the world on their own.
Which of the following aspects of Piaget's theory is LEAST likely to be considered an asset by current cognitive developmentalists?
the exact ages at which children are able to complete cognitive tasks
Information-processing theories place particular emphasis on:
how change occurs.
The attempt to overcome obstacles and attain goals is referred to as:
Which of the following believe children are born with specialized learning abilities to allow them to easily learn information of evolutionary importance?
Encoding refers to:
representing features of objects in memory.
According to core-knowledge theorists, why do children form intuitive theories?
They were necessary in human evolutionary past.
Core-knowledge theorists view the fact that virtually all children in all societies master the basic grammar of their native language quickly and effortlessly as evidence of:
the existence of a specialized language-learning mechanism.
Sociocultural theories refer to the values, economic circumstances, symbol systems, and skills that are involved in everyday interactions as:
Sociocultural theories suggest that teachers do which of the following to help their students learn?
make learning a cooperative activity
The mutual understanding that people share during communication is referred to as:
Which of the following statements is LEAST likely to be support by Dynamic-systems theorists?
Children's actions shape their subsequent development only while in the sensorimotor stage.
According to information-processing theories, which of the following is a true statement?
Changes are constantly occurring.
Information-processing theories suggest that teachers do which of the following to help their students learn?
do task analysis to determine children's specific difficulties
The range of performance between what children can do unsupported and what they can do with optimal support is referred to as the:
zone of proximal development.
According to Piaget, one of the biggest differences between children in the sensorimotor stage and those in the preoperational stage is that
preoperational children can form mental representations and sensorimotor children cannot
According to Piaget, which child would be most likely to be able to reason about abstract situations, like whether there is a god or whether it's morally right to eat animals?
Susan, who is 15 years old
According to Information Processing Theories, cognitive development is driven by all of the following EXCEPT
maturation into a new stage of cognitive development
Which of the following would be considered evidence that an infant has formed the category “furniture”?
After repeatedly being shown pictures of tables, chairs, sofas, dressers, and grandfather clocks, the infant dishabituates to a picture of a car.
A plate and a clock would be categorized into the same category if the categorization were based on:
Which level of category hierarchies do children usually learn first?
Daniel, who is five years old, and his brother James, who is three years old, watch a magic show. Which of the following would you NOT expect?
James will actively try to figure out how the magician does his tricks.
Which of the following influences the considerable development of preschoolers' theory of mind from age three to age five?
all of the above
The perceptual processes whereby individuals can look at a small number of objects and almost instantaneously know how many objects are present is referred to as:
Differences between the counting abilities of preschoolers in China and United States indicate:
differences in language can impact the rate of development of the ability to count.
Research has indicated that pretend and sociodramatic play:
contribute to advancements in children's psychological understanding.
Which of the following is an example of sociodramatic play?
Alvaro is playing “school” with his brother, and Alvaro is the teacher.
A study by Taylor demonstrated that, compared to children who do not have imaginary companions, those who do have imaginary companions:
have more advanced theories of mind.
The coding of spatial locations relative to one's own body is referred to as:
Cases where adults who were born blind and have surgery to restore sight have provided evidence that:
early visual experience is important for the development of the ability to mentally represent space.
By what age do children understand the connection between desires and actions?
Children can typically count up to ten by the age of:
Children who fail at false-belief problems do NOT understand:
that others can hold an incorrect belief when they themselves know the truth.
Harry, a three-year-old, is shown a raisin box and then is shown that it contains pennies. If asked what he had thought the box contained before being shown its true contents, Harry will most likely say he had thought it contained:
In the domain of spatial representation and learning, nativists and empiricist agree on which of the following?
Certain parts of the brain are specialized for coding particular types of spatial information.
The parents of Elizabeth, a two-year-old, are trying to teach her what hammers are. Which of the following would be MOST likely to help her learn this new category?
demonstrating what hammers do
The study that examined infants' ability to retrieve a hidden toy after relocating to the opposite side of the hiding places demonstrated that:
infants who crawl to the opposite side are more successful than those who are carried there.
With age, adopted children's IQs and the IQs of their adoptive parents become:
less correlated because of active and evocative gene-environment interactions.
The majority of early-intervention programs in the 1960s that were designed to enhance the intellectual development of poor children:
initially increased children's IQ scores substantially.
The Flynn Effect is believed to be caused by:
changes in environment.
Gardner's theory of intelligence proposes that intelligence is composed of:
A child's intelligence quotient is:
a score that takes into account the mean and standard deviation of intelligence scores for children of the same age.
Binet postulated that intelligence:
is composed of high-level abilities.
Children who demonstrate gesture-speech mismatches when asked to explain how they arrived at an incorrect answer to a mathematical problem:
tend to have a heightened readiness to learn from instruction.
As children use counting strategies more frequently, they become:
more likely to use retrieval.
Binet's approach to intelligence has influenced the field of child development to:
focus on individual differences.
Children are more likely to use visually based retrieval:
as they become stronger at phonological recoding.
Considering the research on the influence of schooling on IQ, which of the following would be good advice to give to a state Board of Education?
Lengthen the school year by shortening the summer vacation.
Crystallized intelligence refers to:
factual knowledge about the world.
Eric has an IQ of 100 at age five and an IQ of 100 at age 22. What can you say about his intelligence in comparison to others his age?
Eric's comparative intelligence has remained stable.
Prereading skills include all of the following EXCEPT:
Studies using Sameroff's Environmental Risk Scale have demonstrated that:
the number of risks in a child's environment is a better predictor of IQ than any single risk alone.
The ability to think on the spot is referred to as:
The association between HOME scores at infancy and children's later IQ scores could be a result of which type of gene-environment relations?
Which of the following pieces of advice would be most beneficial for low-income parents who want to help their preschoolers become better readers?
Ask your children questions about the stories, and relate the content of the books to the children's own experiences.
According to Tomasello's interactionist view of language development, language is:
a set of social conventions that enable people to communicate.
Which of the following utterances is an example of holophrastic speech?
Which of the following is NOT an example of a way in which adults help toddlers learn words?
saying new words in the first position in a sentence
Learning which of the following is considered part of pragmatic development?
how to take turns during conversations with others
Researchers with an interactionist view of language development would be most interested in which of the following?
children's ability to use the social context to interpret others' speech
Which of the following is the best advice for parents who want their child to learn a second language?
Expose the child to the second language as early as possible.
Which of the following is a true statement about infant-directed talk?
American mothers tend to use more extreme infant-directed talk than do mothers in other cultures.
Which of the following is a true statement about nonhuman primates' ability to learn language?
Nonhuman primates can learn vocabulary and simple sentence structure, but the communicative system they can acquire is not generally considered to be a language.
Experiments conducted by Anne Fernald on eight-month-olds' comprehension of the meaning of the emotional tone of their mothers' speech indicated that:
infants this age behave as if they comprehend the meaning of the emotional tone of their mothers' speech.
Which of the following is NOT used as evidence to support nativist views of language development?
Children are motivated to use language in order to communicate with others.
Morphemes refer to the:
smallest units of meaning.
According to nativist Noam Chomsky, babies are born with:
knowledge of the general grammatical rules of all languages.
Which type of word is generally the most prominent among the first words for American English-speaking children?
Which of the following is a true statement about the results of Janet Werker's research on six- to twelve-month-old infants' ability to distinguish between speech sounds that are not important in their native language?
Six- to eight-month-old infants were able to distinguish between the speech sounds, but twelve-month-olds were unable to make the distinctions.
In the English language, syntactic development involves learning the difference between:
“The tree is growing in the grass” and “The grass is growing in the tree"
Which of the following is an example of telegraphic speech?
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