Study Guide for Test #2 Chapters 4 thru 7 Chapter 4 Schemes Assimilation and accommodation Equilibration Sensorimotor stage Object permanence ? big achievement for sensorimotor period Use of symbols Preoperation thinking 3 main characteristics of this stage: Egocentrism Centration Appearance as reality Children?s na´ve physics and biology (examples of each) Information processing view of mental hardware and software Attention Orienting response Habituation Classical and operant conditioning. imitation Memory (abilities during this stage of life) Autobiographical memory Number skills: one-to-one, stable-order, cardinality Vygotsky?s zone of proximal development Scaffolding ? benefits Private speech Speech: basic timetable for emergence of speaking abilities Phonemes Infant-directed speech, parentese, motherese Cooing, babbling, first words Fast mapping: attention, constrains on word names, common errors Phonological memory Referential and expressive style Grammatical morphemes ? common errors Telegraphic speech ? what is it and when does it emerge Basic rules for communicating with others Chapter 5 Erikson?s stages of psychosocial development (first three only) Crisis that must be resolved in each stage and what the resolution leads to Attachment theory Secure vs. insecure 3 types of insecure and describe each Strange situation (steps), what is it used for Consequences of attachment, why is attachment important Internal working model Basic and complex emotions Cultural factors related to emotions Regulation of emotions Social referencing Purpose of play Types of play and coinciding ages Solitary play Value of make-believe play Gender differences in play Parental influence: scaffolding, mediating, and coaching Prosocial behavior, altruism, empathy Learning gender identity Gender stereotypes Gender-related differences Gender labeling, gender stability and gender constancy Chapter 6 Concrete operational thought ? distinguishing characteristics Formal operational thought ? distinguishing characteristics Third eye scenario Humor at this age Working or short-term memory Long term memory Rehearsal, organization, elaboration, external aids Monitoring ? see chart on p. 225 Early views of intelligence Hierarchical theory of intelligence (Carroll) Gardner?s theory of multiple intelligence Intelligence: biological or environmental Daniel Goleman: Emotional intelligence ? what is it and why is it valuable Analytic, creative and practical ability Convergent and Divergent thinking Mental age Early work on IQ Reliability and validity of tests Intelligence test ? what do they predict? Special needs children ? gifted and mental retarded 4 types of mental retardation and associated characteristics Organic and familial mental retardation Savant Learning disability ADHD ? symptoms, effective treatments Phonological awareness Steps to recognizing words Comprehension Writing ? fine motor skills Knowledge-telling vs. knowledge transforming strategies Math skills ? early adding and subtracting, use of memory What characterizes successful schools Physical development ? gender differences Typical growth rate at this age Gross motor skills Value of physical fitness and participation What makes a good coach Chapter 7 Family as a system Warmth/involvement vs. control in parenting see chart on p. 268 Parenting styles ? types and outcomes for each (Do not confuse this with attachment styles in chapter 5!) Direct instruction Modeling Counterimitation Reinforcement Punishment Negative reinforcement trap Effects of parental conflict on children How age and temperament impact parental treatment Siblings ? pp. 274-275 Adopted children ? facts and myths Birth order Divorce and remarriage ? impact on child development Blended families ? myths Child abuse ? types, effects, prevention Friendship during early school years Groups ? clique, crowd, dominance hierarchy, peer pressure Popular children, rejected, controversial average and neglected children Bullying ? instrumental and hostile aggression Television ? positive and negative influences Describing others and themselves ? how it changes as children develop prejudice
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